Components, Engines, Gears, and Tools.
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Aster (201.) The Aster Engineering Co., Ltd., of 4, Prince's Street, Hanover Square, W., has, as usual, a fine display of the various types of engines and details which it manufactures. The largest commercial vehicle engine shown is the " 46P. " class, which has four cylinders each 130mm. in bore, and with a piston stroke of momm., and which is fitted with forced lubrication, with special passages in the crank, to allow of the oil's getting directly on to the big-end bearings. The engine is very compact, and beautifully finished.
The" 26P." engine is practically half of the above, having two cylinders only, whilst arrangements are made by means of which it can be readily fitted with a governor, or not, as required. No. " 26N.F.," with two cylinders each io5mm. by momm_, is designed for light van work, and rated at mh.p. It has a self-contained fitting, on which is fixed the magneto, the water pump, and the governor.
Several of the smaller engines shown,
notably, No. " 4N." with one cylinder to5mrn. by momrn., and of gh.p., and No. " 26K.," with two cylinders each 88mm. by momm., and giving to-12h.p., are specially designed for motorcab work.
The company is paying great attention to the " Hamilton " carburetter, in which, by means of a special air-inlct valve, a pre-determined mixture is obtained from the carburetter for any position of the throttle, or any speed of the engine.
Brampton Brothers, Ltd., of Oliver Street Works, Birmingham, and .138, Long Acre, W.C., has upon its stand typical examples of roller di-lying chains,
and of sprockets suitable for all types of motor vehicles. In addition to these well-tested productions, there are examples from the works of the Chaddesley Manufacturing Company, of Cookley Iron Works, near Kiddersley, this being a subsidiary company to Brampton Brothers. All classes of steel flanges, bands, and rings, for which there is such a considerable demand in the motor industry, are made, and the specimens shown, which include various sections of tire-fastening flanges, tire bands, etc., are excellent articles.
Burgess and Harvey (174.) Burgess and Harvey, Ltd., of 463, Oxford Street, W., is the agent for White and Poppe, and shows a number of the engines manufactured by this company, of which the 24h.p. may be taken as an example. In this the cylinders are fitted one inch out of centre with the crankshaft, and all the valves are on one side, On the other side is fixed a bracket on which is placed the magneto, the pump, the fan pulley, and the contact breaker. By removing four bolts, the bracket with these can be removed, whilst having them situated at one end of the engine leaves plenty of room for the steering pillar.
No lubricating pump is fitted, but the gear wheel on the camshaft dips into the oil chamber, and throws the oil up into a dish, or tray, from which it runs down suitable channels on to the various bearings. The exhaust pipe is large in section, and over the pipe from each cylinder is a deflector to guide the gases along its length. The water is circulated right along the cylinders in series, by means of connections between the top of each cylinder. On the stall, too, are a number of
interesting tools and engine details, including a governor shock-absorber ; a spring ratchet-spanner ; a valve lifter ; a sudden-grip monkey-wrench ; the wellknown " W. and P." carburetter. The stand, as a whole, is of the greatest practical interest.
Coventry Chain (173.) The Coventry Chain Co. (19o7). Ltd., of Spar End, Coventry, shows a complete range of its roller, power, driving chains, and sprocket and other wheels for use with them. The company is now fitting the " Wormo " roller to all sizes made; it is found both to make the lubrication of the pin perfect, and also largely to reduce the noise when running. The roller is made by making a spiral of a fiat bar of special steel, and then cutting it off to the length required for the roller, or bush, which usually consists of about a couple of turns. This is then casehardened, and ground to size, and in use is found to allow the oil to work through the narrow spiral space, and thus to afford perfect lubrication. The company shows a few nuts and bolts, of very perfect finish, and has taken up the manufacture of these, with the object of turning out work perfect to within one-thousandth of an inch. Its reputation in the older branches which it has developed so successfully should bring in an immediate trade for this new one.
Drummond Brothers, Ltd., of Ryde's Hill, near Guildford, exhibits a selection of its high-class lathes, both for power and foot, or both. For heavy work, there is shown an " S.S.S." lathe, with an" all gear "head, and de
signed for high-speed work, whilst arrangements are made so that it will satisfactorily cover a very large range of jobs. It is fitted with a special bed, which embodies the advantages of a gap without giving the lack of rigidity sometimes found with this type of machine when the gap is not in use.
The smaller lathes are intended for lighter repair work, and one is identical with a lathe on order for the King. A small shaping machine, worked by hand, is also shown, and we have referred to the advantages of these small tools before; in all of them, a very satisfactory business is being done.
The Hoffmann Manufacturing Co., Ltd., of Chelmsford, Essex, has on its stand examples of this world-renowned make of ball bearings for taking both thrust and load. An interestin.gexhibit illustrating the ease of starting when balls are employed is provided by a set of three bearings, to each of which a small handle is attached. Under no load, each may be revolved with ease, but, when each is subjected to a heavy though equal pressure, the ball bearing is the only one which can be moved without considerable effort.
A four-throw crank axle is also shown, in which, in place of the ordinary big-end bearing, a ball race is fitted. This arrangement is being tried experimentally, and, although it naturally adds to the size of the big end, yet a practical freedom from wear should ensue, with the result that far less attention need be paid to this portion of a car's mechanism.
Having regard to the enormous output of ball hearings from this company's works, both for home and export trade, we would specially urge an inspection by every large user.
Fried. Krupp, A.G., of Essen-Ruhr, whose British representative is Mr. A. Reichwald, of Finsbury Pavement House, EC., has a very fine exhibit of all kinds of steel work used for motorcar construction. Probably the most noteworthy feature of the stand is the exhibit of pressed work for frames, stretchers, etc. These articles are made out of a special plate steel, giving the following average results under test : Elastic limit, 41 tons per square inch.
Tensile strength, 51 tons per square inch.
Elongation, 15 per cent. on about 4 inches.
The boxsh aped p re s si ngs are especially god, whilst a 4-inch piston, shown both complete and in section, is a good example of deep work. Not only is the latter pressed in for the gudgeon pin, but it is lightened down at the end, and beaded over at the edge, to give strength with lightness.
Numerous excellent examples of drop forg-ing-s in the shape of axles, etc., are shown, and a large selection of cast-steel wheels, gear cases, etc., are on view. The cast-steel specimens are exhibited deformed, in order to show their ductility and toughness, and, in other cases on the stand, test bars of cast steel, which have been bent
over and closed right down upon themselves, are exposed. The tensile tests of these examples give a strength of 32 tons per square inch, with 29.8 per cent, elongation, and 48 per cent. contraction of area. The show case also ineludes many examples of special nickel and chrome steels, and one example of the former, which has been niched and bent, shows a very fine fibrous fracture_ The nickel steel on test gives the following results : Soft, 37 tons per square inch, 30.6 per cent, elongation, and 75 per cent. contraction ; hardened, 46.8 tons per square inch, 26 per cent. elongation, and 6o per cent. contraction.
John Marston, Ltd., of Paul Street Works, Wolverhampton, exhibits several specimens of the " MarstonMegevet " honeycomb radiator, made for well-known firms, and an example of the Marston " G.A." (Grouvelle-Arquemboing) radiator. This latter is composed of tubes of a particular shape; they are of a "fish " section, or an oval, flatter at one end than at the other. The fins are not soldered on to these tubes, but forced on, and then the interior of the pipe is subjected to a high pressure, which forces it out on to the fins and makes a perfect metal-tometal connection. The horizontally-fixed tubes are then expanded hydraulically into the sides of the radiator, and the outer casing is riveted on. Baffle plates are provided, to ensure the water's passing in a zig-zagmanner through the tubes, and the soldering of these is the only soldering done to the radiator, thus reducing the chance of leakage to a minimum. The particular shape of the radiator tube is found to give very good results in practice.
The company also shows samples of wings for motorcabs, silencer-boxes, and other examples of this class of work. Its great reputation in the radiator and sheet-metal trade is freely borne out by all of them.
Richard Melhuish, Ltd., of 50-57, Fetter Lane, E.C., shows, as usual, a large variety of smaller tools and instruments required both by the maker and user of commercial vehicles. Their exhibit includes srnall machine tools, such as drills, milling machines, etc. A tool worthy of note is a small planing machine, worked by a handle, but yet built on very much the same lines as the larger, power-driven machines. A number of small charging plants for accumulators, such as would be of use in a garage in the country, are staged, and several "Stuart " gas engines of small size. A large range of spanners and wrenches, including the powerful " Bullata " wrench, are also on view.
Mero, Limited, of 5, Albion House, 59-61, New Oxford Street, W., shows one of the most ingenious gears which has been devised of late years ; it is, perhaps, a mistake to speak of it as a gear, as the novelty of the arrangement is not in the sliding tooth gear, which is of the usual type, but in the secondary positive clutch fitted on the driven side of the gear box. The object of this is entirely to disconnect the gear when changing, and to allow the positive clutch to engage automatically at the precise moment when its two members are free and stationary. It will he readily understood that such an arrangement successfully carried out will obviate all trouble in gear changing, and prevent all wear on the gear owing to rough treatment. The male portion of the positive or secondary clutch is a toothed wheel, the edge of which is cut away in a couple of places, and through these project two pins, which are attached to a disc on the same shaft. The toothed wheel slides longitudinally on the driven portion of the shaft, whilst the disc is allowed a slight movement, and, when the dog or toothed clutch is out, is drawn back by springs, so as Lo pull the projecting pins away from the openings in the toothed wheel. On the exterior of the disc are inclines and balls, which form a common type of free wheel with the female member of the clutch, which is a part of the driving shaft.
Assuming, now, that it is desirable to change speed, the positive as well as the ordinary clutch is thrown out, the disc is drawn back by the springs, and the projecting pins prevent the dog clutch from returning as long as the driven shaft runs faster than the driving one. The vehicle, however, slows down and, as soon as its speed corresponds with that to which the driving shaft has been reduced : (1) the balls on the outside of the disc tend to lock it with the female member of the clutch; (2) the disc moves relatively to the toothed wheel ; (3) the pins come opposite to the spaces ; and (4) the positive clutch is allowed to engage at the precise moment that the two members are running at the same speed.
We purpose, later, to give a fuller account of this most interesting gear, with illustrations, but the above brief description will show its general arrangement and utility, and indicate that an inspection is merited.
Hans Renold (167).
Hans Renold, Ltd., of Progress Works, Manchester, since the last Commercial Vehicle Show at Olympia, has made several improvements in its chains. With the one which goes by this name, the difficulty arising from the links wearing the pins in grooves in course of time has been overcome by encasing the pins in split bushes. These cover about one-third of the diameter circumferentially, and are attached to the set of plates making up a link. The result is that the split bush moves Over the pin, and gives twice the bearing previously obtained, whilst lubrication becomes easier.
The majority of the block chains shown are now made with links composed of one plate only on each side, and the outcome of improved methods of manufacture allows this to be thicker than formerly, with the result that a narrower link may be used to give the same strength as the former thin broad one, and the chain as a whole is given a much lighter appearance.
The company exhibits a complete range of both roller and silent chains, and shows both types in motion. Examples and results of tensile tests of the chains are also to he seen, and they should certainly be noted by all makers and owners of chain-driven vehicles. The Hans Renold output grows larger each quarter, and the company has for long enjoyed an unrivalled name for quality and thoroughness.
Ross, Courtney and Co., Ltd., of Ashbrook Road, Upper Holloway, N., exhibits a representative collection of the smaller details which are constantly required both by the manufacturer and user of motor vehicles. Practically all the smaller portions of cars, such as nuts, bolts, throttle valves of various types, terminals of all descriptions, etc., are shown. Amongst the brass stampings, a very smart piece of work is a cover for the filling hole in petrol tanks; this, with the milled head at the top of the dished portion, and with the rectangular projection from the top, are all formed from the flat plate. The company also shows a considerable range of inflator pumps, for which work it is well known, including its " ThreeDocker."
Ambrose Shardlow (205).
Ambrose Shardlow and Co., Ltd., of Ealing, Works, Washford Road, Attercliffe, Sheffield, makes, as many of our readers are well aware, a speciality of cranks, and it shows a very complete range of these portions of motors. The ones exhibited are chiefly of nickel steel, although all classes of material are dealt with. Lubrication is provided for by drilling through from the shaft, or the web of the crank, right on to the journal itself. This company devotes particular attention to the regrinding of shafts which have worn in service, and has laid out the works for dealing with such repairs promptly. This repair work is done to the same fine degree of accuracy (1-t,000th of an inch) as that employed on new work, if desired, and the charges are most reasonable.
Smith-Parirey ( 146).
Smith, Parfrey and Co., Ltd., of Rannock Street, Fulham Palace Road, W., is rapidly developing the gear. cutting side of its trade, and with very material results. It shows some good examples of various parts of motorcar work, in which gear is used. In motion, there is a differential back axle, of the company's own design, and fitted with Hoffmann ball bearings, the predominating feature being the simplicity of the various parts.
The other exhibits include some fine specimens of stamped front axles, of H section, and deep forgings for various portions of a car, whilst good examples of springs for heavy lorries are on view. Reference is made elsewhere to the company's wheels.
Messrs. Herbert Terry and Son, the Spring Specialists, Redditch, naturally have springs as the essentially predominating feature of this stand, although the firm shows a number of other specialities, including a very ingeniously made pressing for the cage of a universal joint. All types of coiled springs are shown, as the firm does not cater for laminated or bearing springs, but a large variety of kinds suitable for brake work, etc., are on view. A selection of split pins includes samples down as small as 1-64th of an inch, this size being used by one motor constructor.
J. Tylor and Sons, Ltd,, of Belle Isle, Tileyard Road, York Road, N., is showing four engines, of which two much resemble the type exhibited 12 months ago, whilst the other two have slight alterations made to details. These latter are chiefly in connection with the ignition, which has been changed from low to high-tension, and to the arrangements for water-cooling the engine. In the former types, the usual system was adopted, but now, in common with one or two other makers, notably the Panhard Company, the cylinders are connected together in series by pipes at the top, thus making a much neater arrangement. This company still pays considerable attention to the lubrication of the crankshaft, getting oil right on the big-end bearings by means of holes drilled in the shaft itself.
Fastnut, Limited, of 6o, Aldermanbury, E.C., shows the Fastnut washer, which has become known as a reliable means of securely attaching nuts to their respective bolts. The washer does away with the necessity for the use of check nuts, and the drilling of a bolt for the reception of split pins.
A new washer, for use with set screws, has recently been brought out, and this is equal to the older and alternative one in efficiency, whilst the price
is reasonable. Both forms of washer are made to fit standard bolts, of from 3-16 inch to tA inch in diametee, and the cost varies from 3s. 6d. per g, Jss in the smallest size to los. per gross for bolts of ti-inch. Davis (32).
A most interesting exhibit is shown on the stand of W. Tasker and Sons, Limited, by Mr. F. R. Davis, of Shawford, Winchester. This is the Davis paraffin carburetter, in which the fuel is precision-fed into a chamber, where it is atomised by a centrifugal fan, which revolves at a very high rate of speed, and is driven from the engine. The fuel is pumped into the fan chamber by means of a small plunger pump, and this is operated by a cam on the fan spindle ; the stroke of the pump is constant at all speeds of the engine, but, in order that the supply of fuel may be regulated to suit the speed of the engine, a governor is fitted on the fan shaft ; this causes an inlet valve to open or close, and a by-pass passage permits a certain quantity, or the whole of the fuel, to be returned to the paraffin tank. The correct amount of air which is necessary for combustion at various engine speeds is regulated by means of a sliding throttle, and this is operated by the governor to which we have already referred. The fan chamber is jacketed, and is heated by the whole of the exhaust gases from the engine, and the heat derived therefrom, combined with the pulverising and distributing action of the centrifugal fan, greatly assists in atomising the paraffin, and reducing it to a state in which it can be readily consumed. We recently had an opportunity of trying, in London traffic, a vehicle fitted with this carburetter, and, although the conditions, for a paraffin carburetter, were very adverse, it acquitted itself in a very satisfactory manner. It should have a wide vogue amongst commercial motor users.
Paraffin Carburetters (149).
The carburetters of Paraffin Carburetters, Ltd., of 40, Deritend, Birmingham, consist of a corrugated vaporising tube, with V corrugations, which is fitted directly across the exhaust passage of the engine. The oil from the carburetter, mixed with about one-sixth of the necessary oil for carburation, is drawn through this and converted into a very rich oil gas. As it passes to the cylinder, it aspirates the other air necessary for its combustion. It is claimed that considerable advantage accrues in passing only so little air through the vaporiser, and adding to the volume afterwards. Almost any oil can be used, provided that it will pass up through the carburetter jet. In starting the engine, a two-way cock, worked from the dashboard, allows petrol to be used until the vaporiser is properly hot, after which the paraffin supply may be turned on.
The Bosch Magneto Co., Ltd., of 23, Store Street, Tottenham Court Road, W.C., has an interesting stand, on which it shows a very varied collection of every type of ignition device. Many of the latest kinds of equipment are admirably displayed by means of working models, The company's "last word" in low-tension magneto gear, shown in conjunction with the new magnetic sparking plugs, is sure to attract a deal of favourable attention. A large equipment for heavier engines is also arranged as a working model. Another prominent exhibit is the new dual ignition, the principal feature of which is a special piece of apparatus enabling the two forms of ignition to be employed, and in addition rendering it possible to start from the dashboard without separate contact breaker or distributor. The company is engaged on the preparation of a very exhaustive range of catalogues, which, when completed, will form almost a reference library dealing with every ignition subject under the sun.
Messrs. J. Lacoste and Company, of 176, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C., has numerous electrical fittings on the stand, including magnetos, and high and low-tension distributors. The combined distributor for high and low tension is made for engines with from two to six cylinders, and one for a fourcylinder engine is listed at L;A. 16s. The design is good in details, whilst accessibility, and strength are notable in its construction. The primary current is collected by a copper plunger, which is in frictional contact with a cam having two, or more, contacts embedded in the insulation, according to the number of cylinders. The high-tension current is fed to the distributor by means of a plunger contact on the lid of the distributor; this plunger is in contact with a distributing arm, which feeds the high-tension current by a carbon brush to contacts embedded in an ebonite ring.
A petrol-level gauge is also exhibited. The construction of this fitting allows the recorder, similar to a gauge glass, to be placed at almost any distance from the petrol tank. The price is
Sir Oliver Lodge's excellent and allpenetrating system of ignition, with its " A " and " B " sparks, as fully described by us on the 5th December last, should be carefully inspected.
The Simms Manufacturing Co., Ltd., of Kimberley Road Works, Kilburn, has on exhibition a full range of the Simms engines, comprising the 6h.p., the 12h.p., the 2o-2511.p. (fourcylinder), the 3o-35h.p. (six-cylinder), and • the 23-34h.p. (four-cylinder) models. An interesting display of working models of the company's various magneto installations is bound to attract attention. One high-tension machine is shown working, in conjunction with " Simms" sparking plugs, to demonstrate the ease with which perfect sparks can be obtained under the worst conditions which are likely to be encountered. This has recently been a not uncommon display. with lbw-tension equipments, but it is here shown quite as effectively in connection with a high-tension system. There seems to be no limit to the number of new plugs which are produced from year to year, but the latestpattern " Simms" magneto plug is a particularly robust example. The whole of the body is made of best-quality hardened steel, and it will be found that the hexagon nut will retain its shape under rough usage, long after a similar brass fitting has become burred over. The insulation is not a porcelain, but a specially-hard composition, which the maker states may be hammered with impunity without the least danger of fracture. The possession of such a quality should result in very large orders from public-service companies and large users of commercial vehicles, to whom an unbreakable plug should prove an invaluable accessory. Publicservice engineers are, however, accustomed to pay very low prices. Another speciality recently introduced by the Simms Company is the Duplex Plug Adapter, which has been specially designed to facilitate the fitting of dual ignition to engines which originally have only one sparking plug hole. The special point aimed at in the design of this useful little fitting is the avoidance of the " dead " pocket, which is usually left in the plug hole because the adapter does not bring the spark points down far enough into the hole. An examination of the ingenious Simms device will reveal that this objection has now been overcome.
Lune Valley (12B).
The Lune Valley Engineering Company, Limited, of Lancaster, has on its stand, which is in the Motor Boat 'Section, some three examples of the patent boiler and burner manufactured by the company. The boilers arc identical with those now in use upon certain commercial vehicles, with the exception that they are fitted with a raked funnel. Steam can be raised from the cold, in eight minutes, to a pressure of 300 lb. on the square inch. Every boiler is tested to a pressure of s,ocio lb. per square inch before leaving the works. The shell is manufactured from one piece of steel, and is made without seams or rivets, whilst the coils, which are made of solid-drawn steel tubes, are of such a form that expansion or contraction takes place without setting up any strains ; in fact, it is claimed that the boiler can be made red hot without any danger of the leakage. The construction of the boiler allows of its being light in weight and small in size, though, at the same time, inspection is rendered easy. The burner is specially made for the work which it has to perform, and paraffin fuel is used. The boiler, with the special burner, has now been in use for over seven years, and the results obtained from it appear to have justified the expectations of its designer.