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Representative Makers oi Solid Rubber Tires.

January 1914, Page 64
January 1914
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Page 64, January 1914 — Representative Makers oi Solid Rubber Tires.
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The Notices are Arranged Alphabetically. The Illustrations are of Noteworthy Profiles.

The Avon India Rubber Co., Ltd.

Head Office and Works : Melksham, Wiltshire.

To obtain the greatest possible length of life from rubber band tires, it is essential that the material should be oi the highest quality. In order to ensure this and also a large amount of resilience, the raw rubber has to be very carefully amalgamated with various necessary constituents; it then has to undergo a delicate heat treatment under the greatest amount of pressure that is suitable.

As will he readily understood, it requires a vast amount of expensive experimenting in order to make a tire which will stand up, for any considerable distance, to the weights now carried.

The Avon India Rubber Co., Ltd., after many years of careful experimenting, has been able to produce a solid band tire which embodies all the latest ideas and improvements, both in the method of manufacture and in the materials of which it is made. Two types of this tire are now produced, the A type. which is the standard half-round section, and the It, in which the sides of thesection are made concave and the tread is moulded in eircumierential ridges, as shown.

The "B-type" tire is in use by a large number of firms, and very good reports ass being received about it from the largest London omnibus company.

A distinctive feature of Avon tires is that they are built up by an improved method which renders them endless, thus obviating the serious fault of breakage at the joint, a defect which sometimes occurs with the jointed type of tire.

To prevent creeping all Avon band tires are made a tight fit on the steel rims; side flanges, therefere, are optional.

These tires carry a guarantee of 10,000 miles providing that this distance be run within twelve months of delivery.

It should be noted that the company is now exploiting the Sims patent wheel. This wheel embodies a neat method for holding band tires in position and for quickly releasing them when required.

The felloe and rim are hollowed out in three places equally spaced round the wheel. Into each of these hollows is fitted a pair of steel pieces, in such a way as to lift slightly above the surface of the rim when they are parted. The steel pieces are separated by means of a bolt carrying two opposed wedges which, on being pulled together by screwing up the nut, force the pieces against the inner surface of the band tire.

Associated Rubber Manufacturers, Ltd.

London Office: 172, Great Portland Street, IV.

The solid tires made by this well known company have been found to be very reliable and to have an exceptionally long life. They are made from a material which the company calls Rubmetal; this is composed of the finest Para rubber amalgamated with metallic salts and gum. Rubmetal is said by the manufacturer to withstand the action of oils and acids, varying climates and other conditions, in a way with which ordinary rubber cenrinot compare.

The wearing power of these solid tires is such that a guarantee of 12,000 miles is given with them, subject to the usual eenditions.

It is said that one of the advantages of these tires is that they are not so liable to slip on the road surface as the ordinary type, owing to its ingredients causing it to obtain a better grip.

lt14 Bavarian Rubber and Asbestos Works.

London Office : 63, Crutched Friars, E.C.

Solid-rubber band tires are made of various cross sections such as that known as the " P," as well as the more ordinary round. Metzeler tires, manufactured by The Bavarian Rubber and Asbestos Works, aremade of round section, and stones or obstacles in the way are found to be simply forced aside by the round face of the tire. Metzeler band tires carry the usual cne-year guarantee of 10,C-00 miles, subject to their use on good roads. In order to circumvent any risk of creeping, the rim of the wheel is fitted with a key, the steel tire-band having a corresponding keyway.

The Commercial Tyre Co.., Ltd. (" K.T.") Head Office : 22 and 23, Albert Embankment, S.E.

For those owners of commercial vehicles who prefer a tire which is considerably more resilient than the ordinary type of band tire, the K.T. air-cushion type can be thoroughly recommended. For vehicles of moderate weight these tires give the reliability and long life of the best solid tire, combined with a resilience which is almost equal to that of the pneumatic. The construction of the tire can be gathered from the illus. tration; it, is sufficient to mention here that the hollow rubber studs _project through a perforated steel plate, which is pressed on to the wheel.

The peculiar form of construction used in these tires constitutes a natural non-skid device which lasts their whole life. Unlike solid tires, these, of cushion construction, improve their resiliency with use, for as the rubber wears down the proportion of air space-to rubber is increased. The K.T. tire, from our own experience, is ode of the very few reallyeffective non-skids.

Owing to the great reduction in vibration on vehicles fitted with these specialities, they are enabled to run at much higher speeds than is the case where solids are fitted.

It has previously been stated that the hardness of tires has a great effect on the life of the vehicle. The effect of the liveliness of the K.T. tire has been found in some cases to reduce the cost of upkeep by over 50 per cent., and as they are sold with a similar mileage guarantee to that of the solid tires the possible saving can be easily estimated. If required, pneumatic tires may be very simply replaced by K.T.s; this is peaormed by fitting wood filling pieces into t le pneumatic tire rim, countersunk head bolts being passed fght through these and the felloe.

J, W. and T. Connolly, Ltd.

Head. Office and Works : 57-67, Wharfdale Road, King's Cross, London, N.

Having long foreseen the rapid development of motor haulage for commercial purposes throughout the world, and recognizing the grave necessity for a suitable solid tire, the oldestablished horse of Connolly came to the decision, after several years of experimenting, to adopt and manufacture the endless-band ty_ e, which is, of course, now practically universal. The company's unique experience, as a rubber-tire specialist as well as a tire-smith, has throughout stood it in good stead. The company fully realized that rubber for tiring purposes, however durable and reliable it may be, is practically useless unless it have a large amount of resilience. Cunnolly's product is a tire which is, especially in this respect., well worth the eausideratien of all classes of users.

Connolly band tires are guaranteed for twelve months from :late of invoice, for a distance. of 10,000 miles. The company's latest type is known as the " C " section; it has been found that this pattern gives slightly more resiliency, whilst having the same life as the ordinary type. As the sides are concave, splitting is practically prevented.

Fr Overseas work the Connolly detachableband tire can be strongly recommended. Tires can be removed or replaced in a very short time, and it is claimed that it is impossible for any 'binding to occur. The principle of this detachable device is very simple. The tread is vulcanized to a steel band which has two bevelled projections running round its inner face. A steel I elloe band, having a corresponding bevelled projection at one side of its alder face, is permanently fixed to the wheel ; the other side of the felloe is chamfered. The tire is pushed on to the wheel up to the bevel on the felloe; a steel wedge ring is then forced, by means of a aide plate, between the chamfer on the fulloe band and the other bevel on the tire band.

Continental Tyre and Rubber Co. (Great Britain), Ltd.

Works: Hanover, Germany. London Office: Thurloe Place, S.W.

Rubber, as used in tires, is in a condition which may be called " arrested." There is pure rubber juice at one end of the process and vulcanite at the other; in between are grades of rubber suitable for a variety of purposes.

In the manufacture of rubber tires it is most important to adjust the processes very carefully, in order to get the correct mean between the sap and vulcanite. If the heating or the proportion of added constituents be at all defective the resulting tire will be of very little use; either it will he too hard of too soft, and it will not-last. It will be seen that to obtain the best possible resiliency and mileage out of a tire there is need for a great deal of careful experimenting, both in respect of the materials to be used and of the means of using them.

The Continental Tyre and Rubber Co., Ltd., has a splendid factory for the specialized production of rubber tires; it is fitted up with all the latest appliances, including a research laboratory. It is therefore not surprising that tires of Continental manufacture are received with the utmost confidence.

The most important production is the now famous "T "pattern band tire for heavy commercial vehicles. This tire has been found to possess many advantages over the round form; it is more resilient, less likely to arid, and lasts longer, while the cost is the same as for 'the ordinary sections.

The company has great belief in the overlapping rim, which does away with side flanges and bolts. This fixing has always been entirely satisfactory, provided that the dimensions allowed for efficient hydraulic pressing-on of the tire are secured.

Continental solid band-tires carry a mileage guarantee of 10,000. Clinched-on solid tires are also manufactured under the same guarantee.

Dunlop Rubber Co., Ltd.

Works: Manor Mills, Aston, Birmingharti. London Office 150 and 162, Clerkenwell Road, E.C.

For many years Dunlops have stood for all that is good in the matter of tires, and, considering that the company introduced the pneumatic tire and has been perfecting tires ever since, this is not surprising. Sonic years ago the pneumatic tire had no rival, but, since the introduction of heavy commercial and passenger vehicles, this type of tire was found to be unsuitable; it has now been superseded by the band-type solid for all loads of any moment.


some considerable time the Dunlop Rubber Co., Ltd., has been manufacturing the last-mentioned type of tire, which is now one of the best known and appreciated in the world.

Among the users of Dunlop band tire solid tires may be mentioned the London General Omnibus Co., Ltd., and the Metropolitan Steam Omnibus Co., Ltd. The latter company runs its buses exclusively on Dunleps.

Owing toathe quality, resilience, and excellent wearing properties of Dunlop solid tires, repeat orders have been received from all over the world.

It may here be mentioned that the company manufactures a special solid tire, for 'service under tropical conditions, at the same prices as the standard quality.

With Dunlop band-type solid tires it is quite unnecessary to use side flanges; the overhanging felloe used with the tires provides ample protection to their sides, and with careful fitting it is impossible for them to come off. If a section of a Dunlop band tire be escamined, it will be found that ths hard vulcanite at the base is waved in such a manner as to assist in obviating any poesibility of the tread being forced off the base.

To prevent an abrupt line, being drawn between the vulcanite base and the soft-tread rubber a thin layer of rubber of intermediate hardness is inserted.

De Nevers Rubber Tyre Co., Ltd. Works : Earlsfield Rubber Mills. London, S.W.

Tires manufactured by this company are in use on almost every type of British-made and British-owned commercial vehicle ; they have given great satisfaction owing to their long life and resilience. De Nevers solid band tires are constructed of the best Para rubber. and the experience of 27 years is at the back of their production.

It is of intereat to note that the Brighton, Hove and Preston 'United Omnibus Co., Ltd., contracted with the company for the supply of all band tires for its motor buses. during 1913. The Lacre Motor Car Co., Ltd., fits these tires as standard to all its vehicles. Other users are

the Landon General Omnibus Co., Ltd., Pickfords, Ltd., Thos. Tilling, Ltd., and Harrods, Ltd. The maximum weight to be carried by each tire varies from 7 cwt. to 40 cwt., according to the section, the smallest section being 65 mm. and the largest 160 mm. When the tire is worn out, if the steel band, with the old rubber on, be returned to the company, an allowance will be made for it.

A guarantee of 10,000 miles is given, subject to the usual condition that the mileage he completed within one year from purchase. The tread is very securely vulcanized to the steel band which is both dove-tailed and serrated, in order to give the hard vulcanite a firm grip. For fire-engine and similar work these tires have proved most successful.

The B. F. Goodrich Co., Ltd.

Head Office : 117-123, Golann Lane, London, E.C.

Goodrich solid band tires are well known and widely used in the industry, by various classes of commercial-vehicle owners.

The material and design of these tires have been exceptionally well attended to, and resiliency is one of their strongest points The duplex curve of the tread is an additional factor in the resiliency of the tire. Tires not made with this curve, on occasion, bulge under load and have a tendency to crack and abrade.

For Colonial work the company manufactures a detachable type of tire of excellent design ; the construction can be seen from the illustration. A detachable block tyre is also made; each block is on a separate segment of a band, and the whole are locked together by means of recessed side flanges. For vehicles such as electric chassis, where it is very important to eliminate vibration to the uttermost, a bana tire made of specially resilient compound is marketed. This tire cannot be expected to wear quite so long as a harder tire, but the saying of wear and tear on machinery and accumulators more than balances this.

Liga Tyres, Ltd.

Head Office : Portugal Street Buildings, London, W.C.

In the manufacture of rubber tires of any description, the vital difference between a tire which is of little practical use and one that is of great use lies in the experience or lack of experience behind it.

It has taken years of careful experimenting to perfect the solid-rubber baud-type tire, and, unless the work has been actually carried on by the firm making the tires, the productions have a very slight chance of being a. commercial success. The works manager of the Liga company is a pioneer of the steel-banded tire ; he has had over 15 years of experience in their construction.

E16 With experience like this le2hind them, it is not surprising to find that Liga tires are in great demand among satisfied users in various parts of the world.

This company has lately taken up a contract for running a fleet of buses in Las Palmas (Canary Islands), while a great many of its tires are running in England. Contracts have.also been arranged by it with the Municipality of Brussels and the Imperial Post Office of Munich. The only method used for fixing Liga band tires is the usual one of peessing on by means of a hydraulic press. The reason for this is that the company believes it to be the only satis factory and safe one.""" . For rear wheels of heavy vehicles twin tires may be used, two single tires being pressed on to a single steel rim. One advantage of this method is that either tire may be replaced if broken or badly cut without the expense of refitting a double tire.

The steel base of the band tire is dovetailed, while circumferential cuts are also made, so that a section through the band shows the dovetailing serrated.

Liversidge, J., and Son, Ltd.

Head Office and Works : 561, Old Kent Road, London, S.E.

With 50 years of business experience behind it, J. Liversidge, and Bon, Ltd., can well claim to be a pioneer in the trade. The productions of this company may he received with the greatest confidence.

In the matter of tires this company has produced a very successful grooved solid of the clinched-on type; its base is considerably strengthened by the addition of stout canvas which is vulcanized with it.

The company also holds agencies for K.T. and Fara-astir° tires, which are described elsewhere in this section.

This well-known house also manufactures many accessories other than tires, as well as commercial and touring-car bodies. A brief resume of the accessories is here given ; further particulars may be found in Section F of this issue.

The A.-Z. portable acetylene sets are widelyknown and used, for instance, by the London General Omnibus Co., Ltd. Another speciality is the A.-Z. illuminated night sign, which forms an effective and novel advertisement for those firms which have regularly to run their vehicles after dark.

The A.-Z. portable acetylene hand lamps are proving a grot convenience to commercial-vehicle drivers. The A.-Z. hird lamp is made exceptionally strong in cast aluminium with brass fittings. The Liversidge solid band tires are of very good design and material: two types are manufactured, the round tread and the T. The T tread has concave sides, which have been found to increase resiliency to a large extent. This section is illustrated on page 68.

Chas. Macintosh and Co., Ltd.

London Office : 39, Victoria Street, S.W.

Almost a century has elapsed since the name of Chas. Macintosh first became identified with indiarubber matmfactura. Founded in 1824, for the purpose of making waterproofs, the company has steadily progressed, the original patents for vulcanized rubber having been taken out by them in 1843.

Ten years ago Macintosh began to manufacture motor tires, and now, after much research work, the company has developed a band type of solid tire which is second to none.

These solid band-type tires are made in a great variety of sections including the dome, plain concave, grooved concave, and three-ribbed. The three-ribbed tire is an effective non-skid for some few thousand miles, until the ribs wear down.

The new triple hard and soft rubber non-skid tire (Coleman's patent) is specially intended for fire-engines, but can be adopted for any other class of vehicle. The salient featares of this triple tire are self-evident. The two outside tires are of hard, grey rubber, while the centre one is of a specially soft super-resilient red rubber, standing a little above the others. This combination gives a grk at resiliency and a good grip of the road, while naturally the wearing properties are exceptional.

Another Macintosh tire is also manufactured for fire engine and similar work ; it also is built up of soft and hard rubber. In this case the tire is so arranged that every alternate section stands higher and is of softer rubber than the adjacent ones. The soft rubber, when compressed to the same level as the hard, naturally presents a greater friction surface to the road, thus helping to obviate. skidding. Macintosh tires have been in use for some time by the premier London omnibus company, and have been found most satisfactory, while good reports have been received from all over the world. The company's name is its best guarantee.

Peter Union Tyre Co., Ltd.

Works: Frankfurt, Germany.

London Office :,190-2, Gt. Portland Street, W.

There is such a selection of solid-rubber tires oii the market nowadays that commercial-motor users are undoubtedly, on occasion, somewhat puzzled as to their ultimate choice.

The foremost mosideration in the selection of tires is economy in every way. This does not only mean economy in the cost of the tires themselves, but it should take into account also the results of lessened vibration from the whole vehicle en which they are to be used.

If an interior tire bechosen it may quite possibly run considerably over its guaranteed mileage, but at the same time it very likely may. be the cause of undue wear and tear on the machinery of the vehicle.

It will thus be seen that the cheapest and most economical tire is not the one that is lowest in first cost. It is often said with truth that the hest is always the cheapest. The tire which combines the greatest resiliency with the best possible durability is oboiously the ideal.

Peter Union tires are unquestionably examples of the finest type ef tire, and their merit has been proved a:inin and again. Over 700 London motorbuses are regularly shod with them. and their resilience and durability have been found to be all that could be desired in the hardest of service.

Only one type of this band tire is-manufactured, and that is the round-tread. The company's own experience, we learn, is that the shape of the section is not CO important as the quality of the material used. Considering that acme hundreds of Peter Union tires, supplied to big conmaercial cempanies during the last year, gave an average mileage of 14,700, that is to say 47 per cent, above the guarantee of 10,000, the company's policy would seem to be fully justified.

The Peter Union factory in Germany is one of the largest in the world. Its products have theadvantage of the latest scientific and skilful manufacturing aid. The company is powerful and wealthy enough to undertake the meat costly experimenting, if and whenever it be reauised. The Midland Rubber Co., Ltd.

Head Office and Works: Ryland Street, Birmingham.

Fifty-five years of rubber manufacture is the proud boast of the Midland Rubber Co., and it is one which is quite justified by the quality of the tires the company produces. In order to show how the excellent features of Midland solid tires are appreciated, it is sufficient to mention that the cornpithy has recently obtained a 210,000 contract, for the supply of them to the MechanicaPTransport Department of the Army Service Corps. Large numbers of the Midland band-type tire are in use by the London ,ornnibus companies, as well as by scores of smaller users in the country.

The band tires carry a guarantee of 10,000 miles, but this

in most cases is greatly exceeded, some of the tires, in fact, having attained over three times this mileage.

A recent Midland innovation is the Ajax detachable solid band tiro; this is partiaularly suitable for use abroad and in the Colonies' where hydraulic presses are often difficult of access. Its details have been well thought oat.

The Ajax tire is the outcome of lens and costly experiments spread over a long period, and it has passed its tests, we are informed, on heavy commercial vehicles with complete success.

The tire is constructed with fernkeys securely fastened to the steel band, which is aia integral part of it. These keys fit into cosresponding keyways nn the steel felloes of the wheels. The keys and keyways are dovetailed and are so constructed that, when fitted; the tire automatically adjusts itself to the wheel so securely that creeping and noise are impossible.

With the detachable-type tire the steel idiot/ is machined to such a diameter as to allow the tire to be fitted and removed with the hands. To secure the tire in place, ordinary side flanges arc utilized.

The North British Rubber Co., Ltd. Head Office and Works: Castle Mills, Edinburgh.

This well-known company is the owner of Castle Mills. Edinburgh, the largest factory .in. the British Empire that is devoted to indiarubher -Manufacture.

With the vast experience gaiued in every branch of the rubber trade, it is not surprising that the concern has been able to produce a solid band tire worthy of being placed among the leading tires of the world.

F170111 experience gained by actual use, the manufacturers are enabled with every confidence to guarantee them to run 10,000 miles, this distance to be run within 12 months from date of delivery. The 'standard practice of this company is to press the tires on Lc) steel rims which may be plain, and in that case are made rather wider than the tires, in order to provide the necessary support. If it be required still further to safeguard the tire, there is a choice between two types of supplementary fastening. In one type a plate ie provided at each side of the rim, the two 117

elates being held together by countersunk-head bolts passing through the feline. In the other type, one side of the steel rim of the wheel is provided with a shoulder, spinet which the tire is pressed; the other side of the rim is simply drilled for bolts, which are inserted when the tire is in position. The Ilea& of the bolts hare a flat on one side, which fits snugly, ltgainst the tire, thus preventing any risk whatever of the tire's working off. If a section of the tire be examined, it will be found that the hard, Vulcanized rubber, which holds the comparatively soft tread to the steel band, is convex at its upper surface. This tends to prevent any disintegration between the hard and soft rubber.

Russian Tyre and Rubber Import Co., Ltd.

Works : Riga, Russia.

London Office : 162, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C.

To be able to comprehend the revolution that has taken place in road transport throughout the world, it is only necessary to think of a few of the immense factories which have been established for the manufacture of rubber tires.

One of the largest establishments in the world, devoted solely to the production of rubber, is the Prowodnik Works situated at Riga, Russia.' This huge concern employs over 7000 workmen, and the enormous production of tires, both ;Mid and pneumatic, can be estimated accordingly. Prowodnik solid tires have an exoellent reputation in Russia, where the roads are comparable with many of the Colonial roads of to-day. They are in use on many London buses and have achieved remarkable success. Very large individual mileages have been made, but these by themselves would be of little value if the average life were low; however with Prowodniks the averages per set, taken for some hundreds of sets already used, are often over 20,000 miles.

Being the only all-red solid-rubber tire at present on the market, the Prowodnik is, above all things, distinctive; their large use advertises their quality. Very large stocks are kept by the Russian Tyre and Rubber Import Co., Ltd., so that there need be no fear of any sudden demand's creating a shortage. A guarantee of 10,000 miles is given, and allowance is made for the steel bands if returned in good condition. The sizes of tires manufactured are suitable for loads varying from 8 to 50 cwt. per tire, 'and these weights must not be exceeded on the particular size used, as, if so, the guarantee becomes inoperative.

The Polack Tyre and Rubber Co., Ltd.

Works : Waltershausen, Germany.

London Office : Bassishaw House, Basinghall Street.

When considering the vital question of tires, length of life must not be considered the only important aeset. Some makers are quite satisfied if they can producerecorde showing how many miles their tires have run, without considering their effect upon the vehicles to which the tires are fitted. This company was the pioneer of Overseas stocks.

Perhaps the most important property of a tire is resilience, and this particularly applies to the solid band type. If a tiro be made of hard rubber it may possibly wear well, but, at the same time, it may cause a great deal of discomfort to driver or passengers, while the wear and tear on the machinery will be abnormal.

While experimenting with solid-band-type tires, the Polack Tyre and Rabber Co., Ltd., gave a great deal of consideration to these points; it has succeeded in evolving a tire which, in the opinion of its users, strikes the happy medium between long life and resiliency. This ensures true economy. The Polack tires are guaranteed for 10,000 miles, but 20,000 and even more is frequently obtained. .

As it is sometimes very difficult for eustomers abroad to get the use of a hydraulic press, the Polack company has perfected a very simple and effective method for fixing band tires without its use.

In this method a band tire is used considerably larger in iuternal diameter than the external diameter of the wheel rim. The space left between the tire and the rim is then filled in with wooden wedges fitted from each side and superimposed. To lock the whole wheel together solidly, two further wedges are hammered in side by side, in such a way as to force the other pairs of wedges together. Finally side flanges are bolted into position to prevent any possibility of the wedges working loose.

St. Helens Cable and Rubber Co., Ltd.

Head Office and Works : Warrington, Lancs.

London Office : 174, King's Cross Road, W.C.

This well-known company has always paid the strictest attention to anything new in the tire world, its latest acquisition being the St. Helens super-resilient band tire, made under the Seymour patent. The special feature of this new tire is the insertion, between the hard-tread rubber and the vulcanite on the dove-tailed endless steel base, of a layer of specially pure, soft and resilient, Para rubber. This method is said to ensure increased resiliency up to as much as 70 per cent., while at the same time it relieves the comparatively hard-tread rubber from many of the destructive shocks to vilich it would otherwise be subjected.

Another of this company's specialities is the Cairns semisolid tire, which is intended for use on light vans. The manufacturing and selling rights of this tire were acquired from the Cairns Tyre Co., Ltd., in 1911. This product has several peculiar advantages over the ordinary type of band tile; It is built up in sections, which are securely bolted to the felloe; each section comprises a unit with three air spaces at its base. In the event of only a few 'sections' being severely damaged, they can easily be replaced by new ones without the aid of a jack, thus doing away with the trouble and expense of replacing a complete new tire, while at the same time the tire is very resilient. For Colonial work, where, it is possible, the nearest re-tiring depot may be hundreds of miles away, a tire which can be replaced in sections is obviously advantageous. The St. Helens Co. also manufactures clinch tires for lightvan and cab work, inner tubes and rubber matting, and is willing to rubber any of the Creery special detachable rims should customers require this.

The Shrewsbury and Challiner Tyre Co., Ltd.

Head Office and Works : Ardwick Green, Manchester.

The chief properties required in rubber tires of any description are long life combined with the greatest possible amount of resilience. In the well-known tires made by the above company, these conditions are fully complied with, and the resulting series of band tires will be found suitable for every class of work. Special mention must be made of the recently-introduced cross-rib tire, which has been found to be extremely efficient in the prevention of sideslip. This tire is primarily intendmi for such vehicles as fire-engines, where the risk of skidding is often considerable. Owing to the formation of the crossribs a very great amount of extra resiliency is imparted to these tires. For rear wheels they are being made in the Siamese-twin type, the double row of cross-ribs giving them the appearance of double-helical gears.

All the Challiner band tires are built up on a steel foundation, which is peailorated as well as grooved ; this, it is claimed, enables the rubber to obtain a more tenacious grip than where there are grooves only.

For light vehicles a special line of tires is manufactured in the " Clinch " type; the rubbers and steel rims can be supplied separately if required.

-The Giant and World tires are made for vehicles of all sizes above one ton. The World tire is of the Siamestetwin type ; it is built, on one complete foundation extending the total combined width; in this way the power reeistaucte in each individual tread, to lateral strains, such as CUM: when rounding a corner, is available from one solid base.

This company also builds wood wheels of all types for omnibuses and lorries. For this purpose it has a wheel works equipped with the most up-to-date machinery. Its all-metal detachable time are a unique and successful feature.

• Simplex Rubber 0o., Ltd.

Head Office and Works : Serubbs Lane, Willesden, • London, N.W: The solid-band-type tires made by this company are in use on a great number of goods and passenger-carrying motor vehicles all over the world.

The list of users of Simplex tires is, of course, far too long to incorporate here, but it may be of interest to state that the tires are running en many of the largest and heaviest types of steam and petrol wagons and tractors.

The Simplex Co., considering its recent establishment., has made remarkable strides in the tire world. .After prolonged tests repeat orders have been received from the London General Omnibus Co., Ltd., and the Natinied Steam Car . Ltd.„ of London.

Co,hese tires are produced by special process in England at a large and splendidly-equipped factory' many of the methods and much of the machinery used in their manufacture being covered by patents held by the company.

A special feature of the Simplex band tires is the inseparable attachment of the rubber tread to the hard rubber base; this erisures the highest possible mileage being obtained, as wear can take place right down to the hard rubber. Owing largely to the quality of the material used and the workmanship employed, these tires are guaranteed for a distance of 10,000 miles, subject to a few simple conditions, one of which is that this distance must be run within a year from tie Cline of pol_:chase. In many cases tires of Simplex manufacture have run greatly in excess of the guaranteed mileage, a few in fact having reached 30,000 miles. It will be noticed that the tires are of "T" section. Works : Milnea, Greenland Mills, Bradford-on-Avon. London Office: 21, Crawford Street, London, W.

The Sirdar speciality is the X.Z. Royal Brand solid bandtype rubber tire. This tire is made of the finest grades of rubber; it is very elastic but at the same time tough and [hirable, and it forms a typical exampleof the highest quality tire.

Owing -to the excellent materials and workmanship used in the construction of the X.Z. tire, the company is able to give it the highest guarantee of 12,000 miles as against the usual 10.000.

'Sirdar band tires have been used for some time on London buses, as well as by many of the leading railways, borough councils and Government Departments, particularly the War Office.

The manufacturers claim, as evidence of the quality of the X.Z. brand of rubber, that old-rubber dealers, without exception, pay a larger price for these tires, when worn, than for any others.

For hot climates it is often better to have a comparatively soft tire rather than a hard one. Under the action of heat, rubber tires have a habit of endeavouring to continue the original vulcanization, and to turn into vulcanite. Before they can reach the vulcanite stage they are naturally in such a condition as to be unfit for further use, as cracking sets in. Now if the tire be fairly soft to start with, by the time ,,ruleanization has reached a critical stage, the useful mileage of the tire will have been almost, or quite completed, and thus the tire remains resilient throughout its life.

Sirdar tires are in use by some of the Colonial Governments and by many foreign. For light commercial vehicles the Sirdar pneumatic tires are .eminently suitable, the combined grooved and studded pattern forming a very efficient non-skid.

S. Stevenson and 0o.

Head Office and Works 59, Logan Street, Glasgow.

It is essential, for those manufacturers who wish to obtain any 'degree of popularity in the colonies, to produce a type of solid tire which can, in the absence of a press, be easily removed or substituted. If the tire can be replaced in small sections, it is for certain reasons better ,still, but, of course, such a characteristic must in no way adversely affect the wearing properties and uniformity of tread. With these objects in view, S. Stevenson and Co. have laid themselves out to provide a really satisfactory set of easily removable tires fOr Overseas work..

The chief speciality of this company is the Faransure tire and rim. This is of the usual band type. The steel feline, or binding rim, of the wheel slants up slightly at one side of its face; the tire is slipped on and held in position lavea steel side flange. This side flange has a sloping top on which the edge of the tire band rests. Thus, when the flange bolts are tightened, the tire band is tightened between two wedges. For those users who require sectional tires, the company has brought out a new block type. Each block consists of a tread vulcanized ots to a steel base, and in this way it is very similar to the ordinary band type. At the base the blocks fit closely together, and the tire simply has the appearance of a cross-grooved continuous solid. The blocks are held in position by side flanges, which clinch over the steel base, and by simply removing the flanges new sections may be fitted. The Stevenson band tire is of the ordinary type made to fit standard rims. If necessary this type may be made detachable; a slightly larger diameter tire is then fitted, the space between the band and the felloe being filled up by superimposed wood wedges.

Wood-Milne, Ltd.

Head Office : Ribblebank Mills, Preston, England. London Depot: 6 8, Manchester Avenue, F.C.

This well-known company is the manufacturer of tires made of what is known as steel-rubber.

Steel-rubber is such an important innovation, that a brief description of it will not be out of place. This material is an amalgamation of the finest Para rubber with steel fibres.

The-fibres are cut from the solid steel and are as fine as human hair; special tools, having hundreds of cutting teeth to the inch, are used in their manufacture.

An endless steel-rubber tread is built up on a grooved steel-band, vulcanite being interposed between the two; the whole is then vulcanized in circular form under great cornpreseion.

Before use a steel-rubber solid band tire presents a perfectly smooth skin, but directly the skin begins to wear the surface presented has the feel of a man's unshaven chin. This surface is essentially that required to prevent skidding and, unlike other non-skid tires, its value as a non-skid does not deteriorate with wear.

The steel fibres of the Wood-Milee band tire render the tread practically impervious to sharp stones or similar obstacles, and ad very considerably to the life of the tire.

As regards resiliency, this is in no way reduced, in fact the tires are amongst the most resilient ever made.

Wood-Milne band tires are guaranteed for 10,000 miles, and it is quite safe to do this, for their average life as used on London buses is proved to be over 23,000.

Wood-Milne, Ltd., is willing to quote for the conversion of existing wheels using pneumatic tires, to be suitable for taking-band-type tires.

The company also manufactures all types of pneumatic tires as well as such articles as rubber heels, golf balls, rubber belts, etc. • Wallington, Weston and Co.

Office and Works : St. John's Mills, Frome. Somerset. Telegraphic Address : " Wallington Frome."

As has before, been emphasized, experience is the greatest factor in tire manufacture ; anyone can buy good rubber in the raw state, but remarkably few people know how to develop its latent possibilities to the full extent. If a number of tires of different makes be examined, it is remarkable what difference can be detected in them; nearly all will have wonderful mileage records and yet some will appear far harder than others. Hard rubber in solid tires does not necessarily mean that resilience is lacking; it is often the donghy type of tire which lacks the spring and recovering properties which are essential. Frame band tires 'are typical examples of what long experiences and endless experimenting can produce.. Only the highest grades of raw rubber are used in their production, while the factory is fitted with, the most modern machinery, and every detail isthoroughly systematized. These tires are resilient and ;tillable, and warrant the close investigation of those whe hitherto have had no practical experience of them.

The company recommends the use of plain over-lapping binding rims, but arrangements can be made for special fittings and side flanges when required. From examination of our sectional illustration, it will be seen that the Frame band tire is of a shape which conforms with the latest ideas in tire design. Splitting at the sides is prevented by making them slightly concave. The dovetailed grooves in the steel base-band are of ample depth, and, to insure a .still firmer grip on to the hard base vulcanite, they are serrated. The vulcanite is thin enough to give play to the full resilience of the tread throughout its whole life.

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