WHEELS OF INDUSTRY.
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"The wheels of wealth will be slowed by all difficulties of transport at whatever points arising, as a carriage is by the roughness of the, roads over which it runs."—,Tohn Beattie Crozier.
Next Week's Royal.
The Royal Show organized by the Royal Agricultural Society of England will be held on the new show ground at Cambridge next week, opening on Tuesday (July 4th) and closing on Saturday (July 8th). There are 19 steam wagon manufacturers making a show of their steam wagon and tractor products, 15 manufacturers of ageimotors displaying power vehicles for ploughing, cultivating, etc., and 6 manufacturers and distributors showing petrol-driven vehicles, whilst there will be a number of agricultural implements with a motor interest and a diversified group of fuels, devices, components, etc., that will interest all users of Rower-driven vehicles. The next issue of The Commercial Motor will contain a full Deport of the exhibits, written by experts in the various branches of the subjects, and amply illustrated.
The Next Read Congress.
The Fourth International Road Congress, which is to be held at Seville in May, 1923, was the subject of a preliminary meeting, held last week at the Ministry of Transport, and attended by delegates of various representative associations of highway authorities, motoring organizations, contractors' federations, etc.
The congress is officially convened by the Spanish Government and is under the direct patronage of H.M. the King of Spain. It is anticipated that even greater success will attend this congress than was the case in 1908, 1910 and 1913 at Paris, Brussels and London respectively. • As the result of yesterday's meeting a • British committee was elected, with headquarters at 15, Dartmouth Street, London, S.W.1, from which address printed particulars will be issued at an early date.
12 m.p.h, for the Scammell.
The position of what may fairly be described as the Scammell type of tractor trailer, a six-wheeled vehicle in which the load carried on the trailer body is partly superimposed upon the tractor, has now been rectified by an order of the Minister of Transport, dated May 29th, 1922, and issued last week.
Previously there had been a doubt about its position, because, if it were regarded as a tractor and trailer, its legal speed would be limited to 5 miles per hour, its axle weights, however, ,being such as would not, if it were a single vehicle, prevent it from travelling at speeds up to 12 miles per hour. The case of the Scammell type of vehicle has been argued before the Minister, who, under Statutory Rules and Orders No. 556 of 1922, has aleeied Article VII of the Heavy Motor Car Order, 1904, by cancelling the last portion thereof, which declares that a rubber-tyred vehicle may travel at 12 m.p.h. if the registered axle weight of any of its axles does not exceed 6 tons, and 2 m.p.h. where any axle weight does exceed 6 tons, and substituting the follbwing paragraph:—
" Provided also that if the heavy motorcar has all its wheels fitted with tyres made of soft or elastic materiel and does not draw a trailer, or draws a trailer which is so constructed and by partial superimposition attached to the heavy motorcar that, at all times, the weight upon the rear axle of the heavy motorcar shall exceed the sveight upon the axle of the trailer and which trailer has not more than two wheels in contact with the ground, such wheels being fitted with pneumatic tyres or with tyres made of a soft or elastic material, the speed at which the heavy motorcar may be driven on any highway shall not exceed 12 miles an hour."
Article XT of the Heavy Motor Car Order, 1904, is amended so that the axle weight of any axle of a trailer may reach tons, but the sum total of the axle weights of a trailer and of the heavy motor deeming the trailer shall not exceed 22 tests, whilst in the case of the Scammell type the total length of the tractor and trailer shall not exceed 33 ft. between extreme projecting points.
The general effect of the amending order is (1) to increase the permitted axle weight of a trailer from 4 to si tons; (2) to prescribe a maximum limit of 22 tons for the sum of all the axle weights of car and trailer ; and (3) to permit a. maximum speed of 12 m.p.h. for any heavy motorcar fitted with resilient tyres when not drawing a trailer. The special tractor and trailer combinations -will be permitted a maximum speed of 12 m.p.h.' provided all the wheels are fitted with soft tyres, the tetel length does not exceed 33 ft., and the conditions as regards weight are complied with.
Leeds Licensing Committee has considered the question of reqviring owners of hackney carriages licensed for hire to insure against personal accident and third-party risk, but decided to take no action in the matter.
Heavy Bridge Traffic.
It is proposed to spend £13,000 on the improvement of the Queeneferry bridge, which spans the River Dee, connecting Flintehire with Cheshire. Complaints lately have been very numerous that, owing to the inadequacy of the bridge, traffic is being diverted through Chester, along the Parkgate and Liveipool road.
The eiporta of commercial vehicles, excluding those of the battery electric type, from the United States during April, 1922, totalled 879, valued at 674,747 dollars, of which Canada took 196, • Japan 56 and Great Britain 2. These figures are of particular interest in view of the remarks on the importation of foreign vehicles made recently by that authority on commercial vehicles, Sir John E. Thornyeroft. Possibly the number of vehicles sent to this country during the month was exceptionally low.
At a meeting of the Warrington Watch Committee the town clerk reported that the Fairfield Motor Go. have decided not to proceed with the proposed motor omnibus service between Irlaen and Warrington.
A Taxation Loophole Closed.
A committee of the House of Commons sat on the 16th int. to consider proposals made by the Ministry of Transport for the amendment of the law relating to the taxation of mechanically propelled vehicles.
It will be remembered that commer
cial goods vehicles are taxed on the basis of unladen weight, read locomotives, tractors, agricultural engines, etc., are also taxed on their weight, whilst passenger vehicles are taxed according to their seating capacity. There is also a heading covering "any other vehicle," which was mainly intended to include *private motorcars taxed on a horse-nower basis.
Mr. Arthur Neal, M.P., explained to the committee that some ingenious person had discovered that there was a loophole here for including in the category of " any other vehicle" any vehicle which was not solely employed either as a goods vehicle or as a passenger vehicle, and, as will be remembered, The Commercial Motor has on more than one occasion pointed out the weakness of the word " solely " which was employed in the schedule.
Mr. Neal proposed a new condition of taxation, that where a licence has been taken out for a mechanically propelled vehicle at a, particular rate, and the vehicle at any time is used in an altered i condition, or n a manner, or for a purpose which brings it within any class or description to which a higher rate of duty is applicable, duty at such higher rate shall become chargeable. A further amendment will also be moved in the Finance Bill under whieh manufacturers' general identification licences will be issued under an improved scale of charges, and instead of manufacturers and agents paying, as they now do, £10 per licence, they will have the choice of two licences, one which permits extended uses of the vehicle, and one which limits the use of the vehicle entirely to that of testing before delivery.
A Petrol Service Station.
The majority of the petrol supply stations already in existence may peovide petrol and oils only to drivers of commercial vehicles, but private enterprise Is now providing a number of stations. which can be used both by the commercial and private user.
The latest of these is the Ideal Auto Service Filling Station situated at High Street, Fulham, near Putney Bridge, the proprietors being Commanders Halliley and Lonsdale-Cooper and Captain Mansfield.
The spirit to be obtained will be B.P., Shell, Pratt's and benzoie, and lubricating oil is delivered direct from a Bowser storage system. The petrol is also supplied by Bowser pumps, and the conetruction work of the station has been carried out by the Barb Engineering Co. of 5, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1. The station includes a showroom for accessories, tyres, etc, offices and the .usual waiting-rooms.
Lancs. Traffic Census.
Under the direction of the Mancheeter and District Joint Town Planning Advisory Committee, a census of traffic on all main roads within the area of the , Joint Committee took plaee on Thursday (dune 22nd) from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. The traffic enumerators were instructed to take the registered number of all motor and steam-driven vehicles passing the various count points, in order that, from the returns, the traffic can be analysed and classified into "through " or " local" traffic. Tbe area of the Joint • Committee includes those portions of Southeast Lancashire, North Cheshire, North-west Derbyshire, and South-west Yorkshire that lie within a drawn line at a radius of 15 miles from. St. Ann's Square, Manchester, and extends from Dareven and Todmorden on the south, and Warrington and Blackrod on the , west, to Hayfield and Tintwistle on the east.
Menai Bridge Incident.
Reference has already been made in The Commerc•ial Motor to the fact that vehicles exceeding 4 tons 5 cwt. gross weight are not allowed to pass over the Menai Suspension Bridge, which Connects the Isle of Anglesey with the mainland. • There is a touch of humour in the incident which occurred a few days ago, when a car, which, with the load, weighed 4 tons 7 cwt., was not allowed to cross, with the result that the unfortunate driver had to carry 2. cwt. on his beak.
Dunlops for Agricultural Tractors.
The Dunlop are specializing in
equipment for the Co.,'orilson and similar tractors to permit of their use for road Iran sport.
Alternative types of equipment are offered, each necessitating the provision of new wheels, which the company will supply, and which will be interchange. able with existing wheels.
In One type the wheels are fitted with solid tyres for the front and segmental solid tyres for the rear ) in the other case • the front wheels are provided with solid tyre-s, whilst. the rear wheels, are fitted with detachable pneumatic tyres, which can be changed in a few seconds. Each rear wheel has the necessary brake equipment and standard Ford one-tourer brake parts have been utilized so far as 'possible.
The Fate of Queensferry Ferry.
At a meeting held 'recently under the auspices of the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce, various organizations interested in the maintenance of the Queensferry Ferry discussed the proposa•ls -with regard to it. Representae Oyes were present from the Forth Conservancy Board, the Fife County Council, the Commercial Motor Users AseociaLion, the Automobile Association and Motor Union, Scottish Motor Trade Association, the Furniture Warehousemen and Removers' Association, etc.
With regard to the proposal that the ferry should be taken over by the Forth Conservancy Board, it was stated that the Ministry of Transport had expressed the view that, unless a road authority were in conjunction with the Conservancy Board, a grant would not be available. It was ultimately agreed to make strong representations that the Ministry of Transport should provide a
grant or grants. A meeting of the Forth Conservancy Board is to be held at an early date, and further action is delayed until that time
German. Trade Outlook.
A recent issue of a weekly report compiled by a well-known Berlin , bank is couched in somewhat gloomy terms re garding the future of German foreign trade..
It states that German industry is ap \ preaching, at the present host of preelec tion, to world market prices, and this will wipe out the superior position hitherto held in the matter of eXporting; in fact, in certain cases, it is stated, the prices of German goads have actually exceeded those ruling in the markets. Dealing with the relative positions regarding trade, the report states that. England is an especially dangerous rival
Damaging Back Streets.
At a meeting of the Lancaster Corporation the surveyor reported that serious damage was being clone to beak streets owing to the passage of heavy motor vehicles, and was instructed to commanicate with the owners of the vehicles concerned.
Capt. H. Lyon Thomson,
F.S.A., eldest' son of the late Robert W. Thomson (the inventor of the first pneumatic tyre, and whose centenary is the subject of an article in this issne by Col. R. a Crompton), has devoted himself largely for many years to municipal work, giving special attention to transport and ambulance matters. Fe is an alderman and ex-mayor (1912-13) of the City of Westminster, ,a member of the Metropolitan Asylums Board, and a vice-president of the Commercial Motor Users Association. He served through the Great War in the R.A.S.C. He is a Gentleman of the King's Bodyguard for Scotland, an Enquire of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, an Officer of the Legion of Honour, and a Chevalier of the Order of leopold. His numerous medals are for -the Great War, including the 1914 Star with bar, tho Nile Expedition, and the Khedive's Star.
-Roads for India.,
Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, K.C.I.E., who was adviser On the mechani, cal transport services in India from 1915 to 191.9, is urging the necessity for the provision of roads suitable for mechanical transport en the North-West Frontier Of India.
Quite apart from military censiderations, which are of immense importance, such roads would certainly increase the scope for the employment of motor vehicles to carry goods, which scope is at present somewhat, limited in most parts of India, whilst the mobility rendered passable to our forces along the frontier would tend to preserve a more lasting peace, which in itself would .encourage transport.
fractors for Mahogany Hauling.
A number of mahogany contractors in British Honduras have been testing the suitability of tractors in connection with lumbering operations. Some declare that oxen are just as economical, but, in all cases, this viewwas occasioned by absence of roads, costliness of fuel. swa.inpy soil, or dearth of meehanie,s. Where conditions were more favourable. the'advantages of the tractor were manifest, and this is borne out by the increasing demand. Most of the machines now being bought come from the 'United States. The Tight wheel type is coming into favour, and is superseding the hitherto popular track-iaying type.
Derby Garage Arrangements.
Strong difference of opinion was manifested at the last meeting of the Derby Town Council regarding proposals for garage arrangements for municipal mechanically propelled vehicles, an amendment to a report of the Estimates Committee being adopted deleting a paragraph in the report of that committee recommending the council to defer any question of establishing a garage until that or some other committee has submitted a detailed report as to the organization of the whole of the transport arrangements of the corporation. The suitability of the suggested site was " criticised, but it was made obvious by Mr. Newbould, chairman of the committee, that there had been no commitment to the principle of a central garage as had been. suggested. All that had been done by the Special Purposes Committee, he explained, was to recommend the building of a garage simply for the accommodation of vehicles for which the Highways Committee was responsible. It was doubtful, he pointed out, if there was any economy involved in the management of vehicles employed full time year in and year out doing the same work. It was complained, in the course of discus. sion, that transport arrangements in regard to corporation work, were in a most chaotic state. An amendment for the reference hack to the committee of a scheme for the provision of a motor garage and workshops, at Ford Street Yard, at an estimated cost of £7,800, was, however, defeated.
Dont's for Bus Passengers.
In spite of a special appeal, recently made by the Underground Railways. that the public should exercise due care to preserve tho natural beauties of the countryside which is served by their buses, there have beenoccasions when damage has been done by thoughtless holidaymakers. In certain cages a carelessly dropped match has laid waste acres of meadowland, roots of flowers have been pulled up and branches of trees torn down. The companies have, therefore, reissued their appeal in the form of a poster giving a list of " Dont'a " for holidaymakers and picnickers.
A Petrol Appeal.
Writing to the Worthing Corporation, the Home Secretary says, for the information of the town council, that, he has received the report of the Inspector appointed to hold a local inquiry into the appeal of the Anglo-American Oil Co., LW.. against the refusal of the council
n8 , to grant a licence for the storage of 4,000 gallons of petroleum spirit in a store on premises at 5, Howard Street, Worthing, and that, after careful consideration he has decided to dismiss the appeal. He suggests, however, that in the special circumstances of the .case, the council may consider it desitable to extend the licence to store 1,500-gallons of petroleum spirit for a reasonable period. At the last meeting of the Licensing Committee the petroleum inspector submitted a block plan showing the position of a store which the company proposed to erect at The Quashetts for the storage of 4,000 gallons of petroleum. The committee agreed to recommend the corporation to extend the licence te store 1,500 gallons of petroleum spirit at the Howard Street store, for 3 months, and to inform the company that, subject to a suitable store being constructed, the committee will be prepared to recommend the council to grant a licence to store 4,000 gallons of petroleum spirit.
According to "Lloyd's List," commercial vehicles form 53.9 per cent. of the total number of mate vehicles in use in 'Soviet Russia, vvhioh, acoording to registration statistios, was 23,000 on October 1st last. The Government, it is stated, has sanctioned the partial emancipation of motor transport vehicles and repair shops from exclusive Government use and ownership.
Save Your Tyres.
Many pneumatic tyres are ruined by rust from the rims, and where this trouble is experienced, a way of overcoming it is to fit a tube-saver, such as the Leosco, which consists of an endless, extensible red rubber and fabric band, thick in the centre and tapered to the edges., which, on being stretched over the rim, beds down firmly into it. This tube saver is made in various sizes suitable for all pneumatic tyres, and the price of the saver for rims ranging from 135 mm. to 150 mm. is 13s. each, or 65s. per set of five. The makers are Leo Steain and Co., 237-239, Deartsgate, Manchester
Durham Discusses Transport.
The Durham City Council has decided that motor coaches and other motor vehicles, instead of standing, as hitherto, in the Market Place, shall be parked in Old Elvet, and that the following scale of charges shall be brought into operation :—First hour, free; :second hour, is. • and over two hours, 24. 6d.
The council thought, during a consideration of repairs to Waddington Road, that a claim should be made against the United Automobile Services, Ltd., as they were the largest users of the road. Councillor Wm. Smith (mayor) said the company should certainly be liable for a part of the road, as their traffic was what was legally termed extraordinary traffic. The council referred the matter to the Streets and Roads Committee As we recorded a few weeks ago, thie authority has resolved to adoptinotor transport as being cheaper for municipal purposes than the existing horse trentport methods, and the new form of locomotion should be in use in a shortefte, the Mechanieal Transport Sub-committee having agreed to obtain one Ford wagon from Messrs. Lockerbie, at a cost of £288, and an Albion lorry from the Forth Engine and Motor Works, Newcastle, for 2375.
It is proposed to hold a conference of the Curnberland and Westmorland County Councils upon the question of motor coach and other motor traffic over roads in their districts.
Cab Fares in Manchester.
It appears that at the next meeting of the Manchester Watch Committee the proposal will be made to reduce taxicab fares in Manchester from 2s. for the first mile and is. 6d. for every subsequent mile, with 6san hour for waiting time, to is. 3d. per mile and 4s. an hour waiting time. The cost of running taxicabs has been falling for some time, and many owners regard as inevitable an early reduction of fares.
• Russell Shock Absorbers.
Morris, Russell and Co., Ltd., 68, Gt. Eastern Street, London, B.C., find that there is a. number of Ford users who do not wish to go to the expense of a. complete set of Shock absorbers for Ford vehicles, and they have accordingly arranged to supply their Russell shock absorbers in pairs for front or rear springs, the price of the half set being £3 15s. and for the complete set 27 7s.
Trolley-buses for West Hartlepool.
When the West Hartlepool Town Council had before them the reemrunendation of their Tramwa,ys Committee to adopt rail-less trolley trams over the Foggy Furze route the matter was discussed at some length.
In expressing his opinion of the subject, Colin-caw H. Mason said he had never heard of a similar substitution having been made as they proposed, in substituting trackless trams for the present line system. As a rule the former were run into country districts, and he, asked if the council realized the enormous wear and tear of the roads to which the adoption would lead, and whether any estimate had been prepared as to what the cost of such upkeep would amount. He argued that inily'the rails needed renewing on the track, and suggested, as another method of meeting the public need, the introduction of light Ford motor omnibuses, which could be operated on more economical lines. Four or five only would be necessary, and they would not be too heavy for the road.
On the other hand, Councillor Swinburne pointed out that the present overhead equipment could be utilized, and this with the corporation'a own power, would result in an economy greater than the obtaining of the Ford vehicles. • Another member remarked that relaying the tram track would cost snore than double what it would cost to relay the road and provide the trolley-buses.
The meeting decided that a rail-less trolley system he adopted for the section, that 36-seater trolley-buses be used, and that the tram lines be taken up and the roadway remade,
National Benzole Plans.
At a gathering which was held in London recently. Mr. S. Renshaw, F.I.C., chairman of the National Benzole Co., Ltd., dealt with the earlier efforts of that concern and the difficulties in connection with the supply of benzole, and explained that a working agreement had now been entered into by the directors of this company and the Agwi Petrol Corporation, Ltd., by which the two companies concerned are to unite their efforts for the production and distribution of the new National Benzole Mixture.
During the past three years the oil trusts are said to have made many tempting offers to absorb the organiza
tion of the National Co., but inelependance had been maintained, and the recent partnership will have considerably strengthened the organization as producers and distributors of a homeproduced motor spirit. The new mixture is described as being one half British benzole and one half super-grade British refined petrol. The value of an admixture of benzoic with petrol is fully appreciated, and it is claimed that in no other mixture of these fuels on the market is the percentage of berzole so high. The two fuels are scientifically blended, which is claimed to be quite different from the mere mixing in the tank by the pouring in of a tin of each. For an admixture of these two fuels it is claimed that, in actual practice, increased mileage is obtained over the use of petrol alone, whilst better hill-climbing, absence of 'pinking, and smoother running are secured on all vehicles.
The annual output of 'British-produced benzole has reached approximately 20,0100,000 gallons, and the figure is increasing, but unless some large unforeseen development occurs, the motor community can never depend entirely on benzole for its needs. This is why it is important to mix it with petrol, in order to allow the expansion of distribution, which it is intended by the directors of the two companies fishall ultimately serve every village in the British Isles.
The joint companies have ample storage facilities, and they have adopted the finest possible process of refining and handling their fuel. By September they will be handling 3,000 tons of crude oil per week. but eventually they will be able to handle 25.000 tons per week.
There are about 100 commercial vehicles in use in Palestine at the present -time, of which the Government owns about one-half. Abona 75 per cent, of the vehicles are American.
Motor Workshop for Islington.
The Cleansing Committee of the Islington Borough Council reports that, for the purpose of effecting 'repairs to the council's mechanical vehicles, it will be necessary to install certain machinery in the new workshop in Lofting Road garao. The cost of the machinery required will not exceed £350 in the first instance. In order that there may be no delay in procuring the machinery, the committee has invited tenders from 11 firms.
Street Improvements in Nottingham.
With a rapid growth of difficulties and dangers inseparable from an enorinous volume of commercial and other Motor traffic, due to congestion in narrow and tortuous streets, the Nottingham municipal authorities have recognized that problems mast 'be faced upon a comprehensive basis, with the result that a farreaching scheme of street imprevernent, which, including the outlay upon new houses, is estimated to cost £316,000, was decided upon at the last meeting of the council, it being determined% to a seek 'powers for the project in a Bill to be promoted in the next session of Parliament. The main aim of the scheme is to provide an law:native route for traffic entering awl leaving the city, which it is not necessary should traverse the already overcrowded central thoroughfares, and for this purpose it is proposed to construct a wide roadway extending from Parliament Street to London Road, involving the demolition on route of hundreds of insanitary dwellings, which can well be spared. The plans have been admirably prepared, and Sir Bernard Wright enforced the consideration, in the course of discussion, that. their carrying into effect at the earliest possible moment will be rendered necessary, owing to the ever-growing amount of traffic, it being pointed out in further exemplification of the imPortance of the matter that in Nottingham, in the first four months of the year, no fewer than 5,000 licences were issued for motor vehicles.
• Vehicles for Egypt.
During March only one tractor was imported into Egypt, and this came from Germany. During that month 113 motor vehicles and chassis were imported into the country, 64 of which came from America, 20 from Italy, and only 4 from the United Kingdom.
The price of two of the standard books published by the proprietors of this
-journal have been revised. " How to Drive a Motor Car," a book which is also useful for the budding commercial vehicle driver, is in its seventh edition, and is 'now selling at 3s., whilst the "Manual of Motor Mechanics," another most useful book, is sold at 2s. 9d. Both books can be obtained post free from our offices at 7-15, Rosehery Avenue, London, E.C. 1, or from bookstalls and shops.
Kerbside Petrol Pumps.
Two recent prosecutions at Swindon have focused attention on the question of public control on the ever-increasing number of kerbside petrol pumps, and very misleading comments have appeared in certain sections of the Press.
It. should be remembered that neither of the prosecutions related to short measure. They were simply for the technical offence of "using for trade an unstamped measure." Previous prosecutions on the same lines have failed, it. being held that 'self-measuring petrol pumps are not " measures " within the meaning of the Weights and Measures Act, but are "measuring instruments," and as such are not within the scope of Section 29 of the 1878 Act, under -which section the charges were brought.
The fact is that the existing legislation was put on the Statute Book before the advent of self-measuring pumps, and consequently does not make proper provision for their control by local inspectors of weights and measures. This defect is unfortunate, but cannot in fairness be considered a reflection upon the makers, marketers or owners of the pumps, who are mare than anxious that they should he subjected to official control. We ate given to understand that before the Anglo-American " Golden " pumps were introduced to this country the legal aspects of their employment were discussed officially with the Board of Trade, and as a result these pumps have been sold and used under the protection of a notice affixed to each pump, the terms of which were decided by the Board of Trade Standards Department. The sooner the law on the subject is brought up' to date the better it will be for all concerned.
A Petrol Tramway Service.
.Attention has been directed recently to the number of petrol-driven railways and tramways in various parts of the world. This form of transport' has advantages where roads are'poor and there is a lack of sufficient materials to make good road foundations, but whore roads
are available it is most likely that, more eilieient service would be provided by lorries for goods and omnibuses for passengers. There is one petard tramway service in this country, however, a shout distance being run by a private zompany between Morecambe arid Heysham, and apparently, in the circumstances which exist there, satisfactory service is being given. The cars are of the singledeck type, 330.1318 being covered and others open, the latter being suitable for the holiday makers who constitute the bulk of the traffic. During the petrol shortage in war time the service depended principally on coal-gas, containers being fitted on the roofs of the covered cam.
Lubricant for Springs.
There is often considerable difficulty in adequately lubricating springs from the exterior, and even if this can be done, dirt is sometimes carried in with the lubricant..
To avoid this difficulty the Automotive Products Co., 3, Berners Street, London,
W.1, supply a special lubricant consisting of a light oil containing graphite in suspension. This oil, when applied to the edges of the spring leaves, immediately creeps over the whole surfaces' and in a short time the oil evaporates, leaving behind it a fine film of graphite. The creeping of the oil does not carry dirt between the leaves, whilst the graphite forms a dry lubricant, which prevents rust forming between the leaves and at the same time it gives sufficient friction.
It is always interesting to learn of cases of success achieved by concerns founded by ex-Service men. In this connection we are pleased to learn of the progress which has been made by the M. and S. Motor Transport, Ltd., of Dudley Port. This company commenced business after the war with one small van, and their fleet now consists of 19 heavy vehicles, and they have made sufficient headway to pay off in full their first debenture holders and several small shareholders, with added 'interest at the late of 10 per cent.
Walsall Corporation accounts show a loss of 23,654 on the motorbus undertaking.
Wakefield Corporation has under consideration the question of transport and refuse disposal.
Sydney Municipal Council has decided to purchase five Ford lorries for the electricity department.
East Ham Corporation has prepared a scheme, to cost .21.0„.000, for a central garage and stores.
Brixamun Urban District Council is inviting quotations for the supply of a 3-ton motor tipping wagon.
Ilkeston Corporation has promised to consider a letter from Messrs. Dawson and Son, Midland Garage, Ilkeston, asking permission to organize an efficient motorbus service through the borough.
Lowestoft Corporation proposes to purchase a. Ford chassis for converting a horsed ambulance into a motor vehicle.
Chesterfield Corporation is negotiating with the Sheffield Corporation with a • view to starting a through bus service between the two towns.
Leeds Watch Committee has granted a licence to the Anglo-American Oil Co. to store 207,000 gallons of petrol at their premises in Knostrop Lane.
The Aberdare Chamber of Trade has decided to approach the Glamorgan County Council with regard to the bad state of the main county roads, especially that linking Aberdare-Hirivain and Neath.
Halifax dorporation Motor Haulage Committee recommends the purchase of two 30-cwt. Vulcan chassis for 2445 ea-oh, a 30-cwt. Vulcan hydraulic tipping wagon for 2505, andtwo Ford tipping wagons for 2240 each. A Survey of Mechanical Road Transport.
The first, entitled "Mechanical Road Transport," was read by Mr. Thomas Molyneux, M.I.M.E., chief mechanical engineering assistant, City Engineer's Department, Liverpool. Mr. Molyneux commenced by saying that mechanical road transport has reached a stage which, to the most casual observer, is of interest, whilst to those who are giving the matter thoughtful consideration it offers a field of investigation well worthy of special study. He then dealt with the history of road transport from 1896, referring to early legislation and to the Liverpool Trials held in 1898, 1899 and 1901. • Then followed a description of the various types of motors in present use, and in this connection-he mentioned that the advent of the six-wheeled or multiwheeled vehicle will undoubtedly offer great possibilities. Comparing the different types, he mentioned that the petrol machine is proving a very serviceable, all-round vehicle, the steam wagon is useful for heavy loads over various distances, whilst the electric vehicle is sue. cessful in selected classes of work.
It is impossible in the space at our disposal to refer to the subject matter at any great length, but the paper was very comprehensive, and included working costs, useful notes on the recent legislation, points in design and comparisons of various road transport systems, whilst a considerable section was devoted to the important subject of roads.
A particularly interesting part of the paper dealt with the problems presented by Liverpool dock traffic, -which, although relating to one city, may serve as a basis for other large towns in the country. The number of motor vehicles used at the docks is comparatiyely small, and under existing conditions of loading at the shipsisle and unloading at the warehouse or railway station the present type of motor is unable to hold its own on short journeys, but it may be said confidently that the adoption of power vehicles, and particularly those of large and heavy capacity, will most certainly raise the siege of congestion,. bqt as to whether the vehicles should take the form of tractor and trailer units, self-contained motor wagons, or possibly combination of both systems, and whether they shall be steam, internal
combustion or electrically driven are problems which will require very careful investigation.
The Sphere of the Electric Vehicle.
The next paper was entitled "Electric Vehicles for Municipal Work," and was read by Mr. B. B. Mitchell, M.I.E.E., engineer and manager, Glasgow Corporation Electricity Department. This paper gave a brief outline of experiences gained in Glasgow with electric battery vehicles engaged on various municipal services. The question of costa was one of the subjects of general interest, and it was hoped by the author that the' figures he gave might help to drive home the fact that battery vehicles can be operated economically, even in very difficult conditions, the road surfaces in Glas
• gow being mainly cobbled, with many stiff hills. Mr. Mitchell pointed out that the cars are engaged on very varied work, comprising general cartage, ash disposal and cable haulage, whilst a tractor is employed for hauling heavy pieces of machinery, and a small threewheeled van is used for emergency service.
It was quite realized that the scope of the battery vehicle lies in the sphere of action intermediate between that of horse haulage and petrol or steam haulage, and comparisons are somewhat difficult to make, but to provide some standard the cost sheets used by one of the best-known petrol vehicle makers were taken as a basis. The tables given by the author show that there is very little to choose between petrol and electric vehicles on work with even moderately long straight runs, but on work of an intermittent nature the electric vehicle shows a marked superiority.
Froth a useful table of replacement costs, the deduction is made by the author that there was an enormous preponderance, of mechanical replacement costs as compared with electric vehicle ones, even including the battery. This shows that a battery vehicle, properly designed and built, could be operated over a long period at a low cost. He also gave notes on the detailed design and construction of the vehicles, and suggested improvements. He pointed out that the guarantees issued by battery firms are not comparable with thaws given on ordinary machinery, as there is little possibility of the guaranteed ,period of use being greatly exceeded.
Use of Heavy-oil Fuels.
The thied paper dealt with the uai of heavy-oil fuel lorries for refuse collection, and was read by Mr. G. Bertram HSLifree, P.8.1.,.M.Inst.C.E.I.' A.I.M.E., Borough Surveyor of -Credal. ming. The author commenced by stating that, in March, 1921, when the cost ol horse. haulage reached 24s. per day psi vehicle, as against a pre-war charge of 7s. 6d., he was compelled to seek more economical transport, and the particular problem in deciding the most suitable form was that of the capital cost. New vehicles were quoted at prohibitive figures, and the prices for reconstructed lorries were exceedingly high.
The author investigated the claims of
every type of vehicle on the market, and by a fortunate chance discovered what he then considered—and experience has confirmed that opinion—the most economical vehicle for house refuse collection—an oil-fired steam wagon reconstructed by the maker, Mr. Thomas Clarkson, of Chelmsford.
As given by the author, the advantages
of this vehicle, viewed against .other types, were (1) as compared with electric battery vehicles, a much simpler mechanism, which can be easily overhauled and repaired ; (2) in contrast with other steam vehicles minimum waste of fuel when constandy. stopping and restarting, and The ability to leave sufficient fire only to maintain the steam pressure without blowing off ; (3) in comparison with the petrol vehicle' reduction" of fuel waste during constant stopping.
The Clarkson vehicle used is in many
respects similar to a lorry of the petrol type, and but for the chimney would probably be mistaken for teal, the control levers, change-speed gear and steering wheel being common to the ordinary vehicle. It is -unnecessary for us to describe the wagon in detail, as a description has already appeared in the columns of this journal, and a similar type was shown at Olympia last October.
The fuel used is heavy oil, and the author is experimenting with a by-product oil which he hopes to purchase at
40. per gallon. The consumption is half a gallon per mile with the wagon carrying three tons; in other words, six ton-miles per gallon. By adapting the feed pipes it appears possible to use any oil with a specific gravity of from .95 to 1.05 and a flash point near 400 degrees F.