Vehicles Consolidate Refuse Tips
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THE dual role which collection vehicles play in refuse disposal by controlled tipping, as practised in Bradford, was explained by Mr. J. W. Call, the city's director of public cleansing, when he described the system in a paper read at a conference of the Institute of Public Cleansing, at Bradford.
Mr. Call. who had stressed the importance of proper packing in tip formation, and had explained that the tip surface was progressively covered with such materials as ashes, clinkers, street sweepings and screened dust, said that the tip was consolidated by the constant travel, over its entire surface, of the vehicles which brought the refuse.
The use of sleeper tracks, tipping platforms and bumpers was to be deprecated. Unless the whole of the tip were pressed solid, it remained spongy, settlement was delayed and sundry nuisances might develop, with a greater fire risk.
Any authority which adopted controlled tipping as its method of disposal should, if possible, use a suitable type of refuse-collection vehicle for this purpose. The lorry should have a tipping body, twin rear wheels and tyres not less than 27 ins. by 6 ins.
Mr. Call explained that the driver operated the tipping gear after reversing the vehicle to a position near the edge of the tip face, and he allowed approximately three parts of the contents to gravitate on to and over the edge of the tip, shunting as necessary to facilitate unloading. The vehicle then drew
slowly forward about 3 yds.; with the body tipped, allowing the remainder of the contents to fall on the top surface of the tip.
The operation was assisted by the tipmen, one raking out any refuse remaining in the vehicle, whilst others, as the vehicle drew away, rapidly raked ashes into the wheel ruts. The surface was immediately perfected. The time taken per vehicle was about 3 mins.
As by this method about 6 ins, of ash had been raked to the surface, it was necessary only to add a further 3 ins, of graded ash, or other final covering, to complete the seal effectively. At the end of each day's tipping, every part of the tip face was covered with such materials as ashes or dust.
Before beginning controlled tipping: the ground must be marked oi.it for the
first layer, the strip to be 45 ft. wide and 7 ft. deep, with banks at an angle of 40 degrees. This width of tipping allowed ample space for mancevring vehicles and provided a wide tip face where two or three lorries could tip at one time.
Explaining that all refuse-collection vehicles in Bradford were fitted with compartments for the waste paper which some householders hand over separately to the dustmen, Mr. Call said that sheds with presses for baling this waste paper were provided at all the city's controlled tips. In addition, at the bottom face of each tip was another shed where the paper salvaged from the tip face was baled, and where other items were salvaged. Vehicles sent by paper merchants collected the finished bales direct from the tips.