OBJECTIONS TO T HE SPRING DRIVE.
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Writing from the point of view of the user who studies the maintenance costs in £ s. d., my opinion is that radius rods are very necessary, and I contend that this fact has been definitely established where heavy lorries are persistently worked. The mechanical dislocations, generally speaking, have been much greater in the case of those vehicles fitted with the system which "Live Axle" advocates, i.e., with the rear spring fitted rigidly to the axle casing, where the poor overloaded spring is expected to swallow the heavy starting torque, horizontal shocks, and retardation stresses. I append a list of some failures directly traced to this retrograde system of spring anchorage :- 1. Crankshafts twist and break. 2. Clutches become deranged as their operation depends upon hunian action. 3. Leather universal joints tear to pieces. 4. Live axle casings-split asunder. 5. Frame rivets work loose. 6. "Rear springs work loose and top leaves break. Petrol-electric and chain-driven vehicles 1 am not discussing. Therefore, from a practical point of view, " Live Axle's" ease is not established ; besides which, i many of the problems that crop up n practical work are of such a complex nature that mathematical treatment does not adapt itself to them. This applies to the deflections produced and stresses set up in chassis springs by irregular road obstructions. There can be no more conclusive test of a springing system than that it should give the best all-round results in fair weather or foul. SPRING Pam. m21.