The Latest in Proprietary Units
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STANDARDIZATION of component units in many different makes and types of vehicle is playing an increasingly important part, both at home and overseas, in facilitating spares organization and in reducing maintenance costs. The exhibits of the proprietary-unit manufacturers at the Commercial Motor Show will provide a comprehensive display of equipment.
which, on the one hand, exemplifies the value of standardization and, on the other, is indicative of many design trends in current development work.
The LW series of oil engines with increased power ratings, to be shown by Norris, Henty and Gardners, Ltd., Patricroft, Manchester, on Stand 177, represents a development of great importance to the industry. All modifications to the Gardner LW engines since 1931 (and to the 4I,K since 1934) have been introduced without affecting interchangeability, and although the current changes are such that an allround increase in output of about 10 per cent, is achieved, it has been possible to continue this policy. The new components include a modified injection pump and redesigned sprayers. 1.0F.X8 pistons and an enlarged exhaust manifold, the last-named being applicable to the 5LW and 6LW. The parts may be fitted to any engine manufactured after 1931.
The output of the 6LW has been increased from 102 b.h.p. at 1,700 r.p.m. to 112 b.h.p. at the same speed, and the maximum torque raised from 346 lb.-ft. at 1,000 r.p.m. to 358 lb.-ft. over the 1,100 r.p.m. to 1,500 r.p.m. range. The power of the 5LW is now 94 b.h.p., as compared with the original rating of 85 b.h.p • and that of the 4LW has been lifted from 68 b.h.p. to 75 b.h.p. Formerly developing 140 b.h.p., the 8I,W produces 150 b.h.p.
The rating of the 4LK remains unchanged at 57 b.h.p.
An underfloor version of the 6LW, the 6HLW, described on page 118, is an important newcomer to the Gardner range. The horizontal engine weighs approximately 50 lb. more than the vertical unit, but the changes required for underfloor mounting have not affected to an appreciable extent . the interchangeability of the major components.
The recently introduced fou rcylindered 4D330 oil engine will be one of the main exhibits of Henry Meadows. Ltd., Fallings Park, Wolverhampton, on Stand 398. This unit was specifically designed for the 6-ton to 8-ton class of goods vehicle and for single-deck passenger vehicles. With a capacity of 5.43 litres and a "square" bore and stroke of 120 mm., the power output is 80 b.h.p. at the governed speed of 2,200 r.p.m. important features of the engine include a harmonic balancer, wet-type liners and a Tocco-hardened crankshaft. The four-cylindered 4DC420 oil engine of 6.9-litre capacity, developing 90 b.h.p. at 1,930 r.p.m., is retained in the range.
A horizontal version of the sixcylindered 6DC630 compression-ignition unit is another recent and important development to meet the
demand for underfloor units. Designated the 6HDC630, it is basically similar to the vertical unit, with a capacity of 10.35 litres, a bore and stroke of 130 mm. and a power output of 130 b.h.p. at 1.900 r.p.m. The 6PC630 ig a petrol version of the 6DC630. which was shown for the first time at the 1948 Exhibition. Detailed modifications have since been introduced and, if required, a second cylinder head with accessories can be supplied by which the engine may be converted in a few hours to the use of petrol. In petrol form, the engine develops 178 b.h.p. at 2,400 rpm. •
Successful tests with turbo-supercharging applied to the 15.9-litre 6DC970 oil engine led to the developcl I ment of the 6DSC970, with output of 260 b.h.p. at 1,650 r.p.m., as compared with the former maximum b.h.p. of 180. The "970" is exhibited in supercharged form
On Stand 336, F. Perkins, Ltd., Peterborough, will feature oil-engine conversion sets for Bedford, Canadian Ford and Chevrolet Vehicles, based on the P6V engine with a •normal rating of 70 b.h.p. at 2,200 r.p.m., or a high rating of 77 b.h.p. at 2,400 r.p.m. The sets include a 12-volt dynamo and starter, Kigass easy-starting equipment, induction heater, fan, water pump, an oil-bath air filter and two lubricatingoil filters. The full range of conversion parts comprises such components as C.A.V. and Tecalemit fuel filters, radiator connections, exhaust pipe, oilpressure warning switch, windscreen wiper adapter and all supports, brackets, and so on. An exhauster is fitted to the Bedford and Chevrolet conversion engines.
A sectioned P6V will also be exhibited on the stand, which shows the constructional details of the engine and the "Aeroflow " system of combustion. Machining the chamber and throat is a lately introduced modiflcation which ensures a uniform power output from each cylinder and enables the high rating of 77 b.h.p. at 2,400 r.p.m. to be made available. The modification also applies to the four-cylindered P4V, which develops 46 b.h.p. at 2.200 r.p.m.
The Rover eight-cylindered V-form lightweight oil engine, fitted to the Thornycroft Mighty Antar, to be shown on Stand 55, is the only British oil engine in the 250-350 b.h.p. power range and represents an outstanding unit in world markets by virtue of its very high power-to-weight ratio. The dry weight of the unit is 1,500 lb. and yet the derated version (Mk. 101), as fitted to the Mighty Antar, develops 250 b.h.p. The maximum power for "all-speed" operation is 320 b.h.p.
Following aircraft practice, the castings of the crankcase, cylinder block and cylinder head are of aluminium alloy, and the wet-type cylinder liners are so closely spaced that the
overall length of the engine has been reduced to 43.4 ins. The engine may be readily adapted to suit different installation requirements, with alternative mounting positions for the radiator. fan drives and so on.
The engine has a Ricardo Comet Mk. 3 combustion chamber made of a special high-chromium steel to withstand the localized high temperatures. There are two inlet valves per cylinder and one sodium-cooled exhaust valve.
Diesel knock is the subject of much current development work and a sectional model of a pilot-injection system to be shown by C.A.V., Ltd., Acton, London, W.3, on Stand 198 is of particular interest. A pump-testing machine is used in the apparatus to enable direct visual analysis of pilot' injection rates to be made with transparent, slotted collecting cells rotated beneath a discharging nozzle orifice. A special form of nozzle is employed in conjunction with a pump-delivery valve designed for the system. Other C.A.V. exhibits include representative ranges of fuel-injection equipment, dynamos and starters.
Heavy Tappet Mechanism
A six-cylinder fuel-injection pump to be seen on Stand 329. by Bryce Fuel Injection, Ltd., Staines, Middlesex, is specially designed for fast-running engines with speeds up to 3,000 r.p.m. The heavy tappet mechanism of the standard type of pump is replaced by rockers and this reduces inertia forces to a minimum. The pump is controlled by an all-speed hydraulic governor and incorporates a fully automatic timingcontrol mechanism. Also to be exhibited on the stand will be the Bryce-Berger Handraulic starter, which incorporates a hand pump, air accumulator and rack starting mechanism.
Fuel injection pumps for six-, fourand two-cylindered engines are included in the range of injection equipment, starters and dynamos to be shown by Simms Motor Units, Ltd., East Finchley, London, N.2, on Stand 272. The six-cylinder pumps may be fitted with either all-speed governors or with vacuum-governor and throttle-control units. A type SRM6 magneto with a DRB automatic advance is also to be on view..
Governor carburetters will be important exhibits on Stand 159, where Soles, Ltd., 223-231, Marylebone Road, London, N.W.1, will display a range of these units, which are manufactured in downdraught, vertical or horizontal forms in sizes varying from 30 mm. to 46 mm. The governor has no mechanical connections and operates on the charge-momentum principle, the eccentric butterfly being controlled by an adjustable spring which is set to equal the effective air pressure at any predetermined engine speed. The throttle remains fully open until the governed speed is reached. Sectioned models of the AAPI and the PB I downdraught types will also be shown.
Master carburetters for diagnosing engine faults are to be among the exhibits of the Zenith Carburettor Co., Ltd., Stanmore, Middlesex, on Stand 173. A special display is being made of conversion outfits with which earlier types may be rebuilt to the latest specifications. Zenith and Stromberg carburetters will he sectioned to expose the various drillings and channels.
A prominent exhibit on Stand 355 (Scintilla, Ltd.. The Hyde, Hendon, London, N.W.9) will be a range of Vertex magnetos for four-, sixand eight-cylindered engines, which are designed to replace distributors of coilignition systems without alterations to the drive. Horizontal magnetos, with or without automatic advance and impulse starter, will also be displayed, in addition to dynamos, starters and fuel-injection equipment.
Announced earlier this year. the Frustacon rubber mounting to be shown by Silentbloe, Ltel., Notting Hill, Gate, London, W.11, on Stand 291, has now been subjected to prolonged testing. The compression and rebound pads are moulded in one piece and the rubber works both in shear and compression. The range covers all weights of power unit. The largest units to be shown are designed for rear-bogie mountings, and other exhibits will include road-spring bearings and standard anti-vibration mountings.
Rubber engine and body mountings, shackle pins and torsional-vibration dampers will form the main exhibits displayed by Metalastik, Ltd., Evington Valley Road, Leicester, on Stand 230.
The mountings ' will include the Metacone and sandwich types. A propeller-shaft centre-bearing mounting will also be seen.
16-in. Diameter Clutch
A full range of clutches is to be exhibited by the Borg and Beck Co., Ltd., Leamington Spa, on Stand 345. the largest unit, with a diameter of 16 ins., being designed for the heaviest vehicles in production.
Known as the MN. automatic gear control, a new type of electric governor fitted to an air-operated gearbox is a particularly interesting feature of the components scheduled to be shown by the Self-Changing Gear Co., Ltd., Lythalls Lane, Coventry, on Stand 262. The governor switch unit reacts to the speed of the gearbox input shaft and to the fuel-injection delivery, and gear changing is directed in accordance with the requirements of speed nod power output. Moreover, full manual control is instantly available by moving a master-control switch s:tuated on the steering column. This exhibit ;included in a range of preselective and power-operated gearboxes covering power outputs of 100-150 blip.
Featured on the stand of the Laycock Engineering Co.. Ltd., Millhouses, Sheffield, 8 (Stand 207). will be a work
ing exhibit of the I Aycock-deNormanville epicyclic overdrive unit driven by a variable-speed motor This demonstrates the way in which engine revolutions decrease at a "fixed road speed when overdrive is brought into use by a finger-pressure lever. The unit is of the compounded-train type adopted by a well-known car manufacturer and is ideally suited for use on Ion g-distance coaches, particularly those for export. The Laycock-Neale air brake for public service vehicles is to be featured in another demonstration exhibit.
A four-speed clutchless gearbox similar to that fitted to the Dennis Dominant chassis will be shown by Hobbs Transmission, Ltd., Leamington, on Standard 299. It comprises a single planet assembly, two clutches, three torque-reaction brakes and a hydraulic system. The design enables the gears to be changed by a single lever on the steering column without alteration of the throttle position.
David Brown and Sons (Huddersfield), Ltd.. Huddersfield. will be showing, on Stand 190, a wide range of gearboxes. including units with torque ratings up to 4,200 lb.-inc. This rating applies to the five-speed " 557 " gear
box, which is suitable for a 15-ton vehicle with a laden weight of 22 tons. The 542" five-speed gearbox is designed for 5-6-ton vehicles with a maximum laden weight of 91 tons and an engine torque of 2,210 lb.-ins. The four-speed " 437 " has a torque capacity of 1,560 lb.-ins, and is suitable for vehicles with a capacity of 3 tons and a maximum weight of 51 tons. The four-speed gearbox for the 3-ton and 6-ton mechanical horse will also be shown, in addition to worm-gear and hypoid differential units, A Fuller five-speed heavy-duty gearbox with helical gears for all the forward ratios is to be displayed by the Automotive Products Co., Ltd., Leamington Spa, on %rid 338. The box will be sectioned to show its working features. Also on this stand will be a sectioned Timken heavy-duty rear axle with hypoid drive.
A range of propeller shafts with oillubricated needle-bearing universal joints to cover all types of commercial vehicle are to be displayed by Hardy, Spicer and Co., Ltd., Witton, Birmingham, on Standard 191. A wide range of flexible couplings is also to be included.
Joint for F.W.D.
On Stand 208, Bendix, Ltd., Tyseley, Birmingham, will exhibit a working model to demonstrate the. action of Tracta constant-velocity universal joints in a typical f.w.d. application. Rear axles ot 5-ton and 6-7-ton capacity, which may be fitted with either spiral-bevel or hypoid differentials, will he exhibited by the Moss Gear Co.. Ltd., Tyburn. Birmingham, on Standard 158 Both axles have a torque rating of 230 lb.-ft. A twospeed hypoid differential unit is also to be shown.
A five-speed gearbox with a torque capacity of 230 lb.-ft. and a four-speed gearbox with a capacity of 175 lb.-ft, will be among the other gear exhibits. Also on show will be a propeller shaft incorporating Mechanics roller-bearing universal joints A hypoid-drive rear axle for heavy vehicles up to 12 tons gross weight is to be exhibited for the first time by Kirkstall Forge Engineering, Ltd., Leeds, 5. on Stand 390. The axle features a patented oil-feed pump and compressed-air-operated cam brakes with worm-type slack adjusters.
Other new exhibits are to include quarter-scale models of the 85-100-ton double-axle bogie with a patented double-reduction differential, as fitted to the Thornycroft Mighty Antar, and of the extra-heavy-duty front axle which is used in combination with the bogie. The differential is also fitted to a single driving axle suitable for fourwheeled lorries of 27 tons gross weight or six-wheeled tractors of 60 tons.
Separate component parts of the Eaton two-speed rear axle will be shown oil Stand 379 by Eaton Axles, Ltd., 25, Victoria Street. London, S.W.1, in addition to complete units of the 1350 and 1350/16500 types. These include a differential driving-head assembly, a spiral-bevel crown wheel and pinion, a set of planet pinions. a high-speed clutch plate and a low-speed plate. The design features and the operation principles of the mechanism may be studied in detail and colour diagrams will be available to show the power flow in the two ratios.
On Stand 311, E.N.V. Engineering Co., Ltd., Hythe Road, London, N.W.I0, will have a double-reduction batteryelectric vehicle axle in addition to a number of parts for the Eaton twospeed axle.
Braking systems to be seen on Stand 391 (Clayton Dewandre Co., Ltd., Lincoln), include air-pressure, vacuum operated and hydraulic units. Many separate components of the concern's air-pressure equipment are also to be displayed. These comprise a reservoir complete with the brake, clutch and unloader valve as a unit, an air cylinder and valve for pressure-assisted steering. a servo for power-assisted gear changing and a master servo for air-pressure hydraulic braking. Working models will be used to demonstrate vacuumhydraulic and pump-assisted continuousflow hydraulic braking systems.
Exhibited for the first time by the Lockheed Hydraulic Brake Co., Ltd., Leamington Spa, on Stand 337, will be a new hydraulic brake with dual-type two-leading shoes at the fro% and onecylinder-actuated shoes at the rear, which have two-leading-shoe characteristics. Both the front and rear brakes are equally effective when travelling forward and in reverse. Servo systems for vehicles up to 12 tons are to be shown,,the types for the heavier vehicles incorporating an accumulator and charging valve.
A saving of 40 per cent. in the pedal effort required is claimed by Girlint. Ltd., Tyseley, Birmingham, as an advantage of the new camshaft-actuation mechanism employed on the heavygoods-vehicle and passenger-vehicle brakes which are to be exhibited on Stand 209. The latest range to be introduced comprises two-leading-shoe brakes with drum diameters of 151 ins. and 151 ins. and widths of 3 ins. up to 7 ins. A high shoe-centre lift ensures that brake-adjustment intervals are increased to conform with periods between routine servicing. Any of the brakes in the Girling range may be hydraulically or mechanically operated.
Working exhibits of compressed-air braking equipment for all types of road vehicle will be displayed by the Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co., Ltd., 82. York Way, King's Cross, London, N.1. on Stand 349. These include a singlepipe trailer brake for tractors and trailers, which provides for service braking and has an automatic break away feature. The passenger-vehicle brake incorporates an unloader valve for light running and a low-pressure switch which operates a warning buzzer.
The goods-vehicle brake is a simplified type of equipment comprising a reservoir on which is mounted the driver's control valve and the compressor unloader.
Demonstration trolleybus equipment which is controlled from the "driver's seat" is also to be featured by the c15 English Electric Co., Ltd., Kingsway, London, W.C.2, on Stand 384. Other • ,exhibits will include a trolleybus main motor, type EE 410/4, of 120 h.p. at the one-hour rating, and auxiliary equipment such as compressors, motors, and contactors. One of the motors, with its component parts, will be opened-up for inspection.
Equipment for both battery-electrics and trolleybuses is to be exhibited by Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd., Trafford Park, Manchester, on Stand 361. Two trolleybus motors will be shown, one directly toupled to a generator and one with an overhung generator, both types being suitable for battery charging and vehicle-lighting duty. Battery-electric equipment includes a typical motor, a drum controller and a complete contactor-control apparatus.
Chassis frames will be displayed by a number of concerns. Joseph Sankey and Sons, Ltd., Wellington, Salop, will have a representative 5-ton tipper frame on Stand 167 and a similar exhibit will appear on Stand 178, shown by Rubery Owen and Co., Ltd., Darlaston, Staffs. Other complete units on the Rubery Owen stand will include a trailer axle. Chassis frames for light and mediumweight vehicles are to be exhibited by the Projectile and Engineering Co., Ltd., London, S.W.8, on Stand 304.
Alford and Alder (Engineers), Ltd., London, S.E.I7, will show on Stand 247 a range of front-axle assemblies of 5cwt. to 7-cwt. carrying capacity, and examples of light trailer-axle assemblies.