At the Smithfield Show.
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His Majesty the King found time, on Monday afternrxm last, in company with King Haakon, the Prince of Wales, and Prince Christian, to scan the mechanical exhibits with more than passing interest. It is true he had no occasion to smile in this section, as was the case when the pigs and porkers were being awakened, by sundry blows and to the accompaniment of much grumbling, in order that they should be "at attention " when the King Caine.
The Show remains open until Friday (to-morrow) night only. It contains representative tractors, particulars and dimensions of which we have summarised in the accompanying table, and one motor lorry—that of Savage Brothers, Limited. The Foster exhibit is among the most interesting, as the tractor on view, which is one of a number for Pickford's, the great carriers and forwarding agents, embodies all the latest and most up-to-date points in tractor design, qua use in commercial service as distinct from raas:construction or showmen's work. We congratulate Mr. Tritton upon the manner in which he has combined sound engineering practice with features which must commend themselves to every buyer who requires to have an economical and convenient means of haulage at his disposal.
Of the exhibits which are entirely novel, we regard the Marshall agricultural motor as the most promising example. It combines the necessary elements of a road tractor and a motor for use on the land, whilst the selection of engineers' tools and sundries upon the Willcox stands is-of the greatest practical interest to all owners.
Charles Burrell 44Z Sons, Limited, of Thetford, Norfolk. (Stand No. 29.)
The steam tractor which is exhibited on this stand is none other than the winner of the gold medal for its class in the recent R.A.C. trials. The excellent condition of the wooden treads on the back wheels 1.8 well worth noting by the interested visitor; there can be no doubt that such treads must, on account of their resiliency, effect considerable saving in the wear and tear of the motor, in addition to the more silent running which attends their use. This tractor is built on the lines of the road locomotives, which, for years, have been such well-known products of this company's works. One feature in its design is, however, distinctive. This is the arrangement of double gearing the engine on the last motion_ Each rear wheel is separately driven, by means of a spur pinion and wheel, from a differential countershaft (as shown in our sketch on this page). By this arrangement, the necessity for a live-axle is dispensed with and the rear axle is only called upon to take the bending strains, and part of the road shocks; it is relieved of all torsional strains. During, the trials this tractor put up a very good record, towards which the wooden treads, and the three speed gear with which it was fitted, admittedly contributed in no small degree.
This company has a splendid history in road locomotion, and its founders were amongst the first engineers to gain successes in the particular branches which they chose to follow. Later
M11 years have seen their machines subjected to very severe tests at the hands of the military authorities, and no maker was able to show a better record than was furnished by Burrell traction engines during the South African war. Its present exhibit under the Motorcar Acts is exceptionally stout in construction, and the machine has ample power for travelling in hilly districts. There is a central, circumferential flange mid-way across the tire of each driving wheel and the long bolts pass through : (a) the inner flange, which is integral with the wheel; (b) the inner set of blocks ; (c) the central ring; (d) the outer set of blocks ; and (e) the outer, detachable flange.
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Wm. Tasker & Sons, Limited, of Andover. (Stand No. 501, Minor Hall.)
This company was one of the first of the old, tractionengine makers who realised the need for, and the possibilities of, a steam motor, constructed on traction engine lines to come within the limits of the Motor Car Act of 1896 : the " Little Giant " was the result. Ten years of practical work with this type of machine have enabled the makers to eliminate the weaknesses which were obvious in the early models, and the tractor shown in the Minor Hall represents the latest practice at the Waterloo Works, Andover, where these machines are constructed. The War authorities have been amongst the staunchest supporters of
Protection for the link motion on the "Little Giant."
this maker and there are, at the present time, a large number of " Little Giants " in military use. Amongst the many complimentary letters received by this company, we note the following :—" The Little Giant ' is going on admirably. I have a large plantation to cut down in a very mountainous district, and I decided to put a mill in the wood. The 'Little Giant ' carted all the plant down the valley, through the Newport river at a ford, and then up the mountain side, over one of the steepest and worst roads you can dream of. The plant included a t6h.p. engine and boiler, and all was landed in the wood without mishap of any kind. The original wire rope that you supplied with the engine was used for all the Work." The above is part of a letter from G. Evans, Co. Tipperary, and is hut typical of many such letters from owners. R. White and Sons, Limited, the well-known aerated-water manufacturers, of Camberwell, says :—"We conclude that each motor has done the work of 8 horses," and, "We can recommend the ' Little Giant' with every confidence." Another owner, Mr. C. T. Burnham, of Upper Brailes, Banbury, Oxon, who purchased a tractor of this make in September, 5903, writes on the sth of March, tgo6, " I cannot speak too highly of the boiler. I have never had a. leaky tube or any trouble whatever with it." No doubt exists in our minds that this is a powerful machine, but we think that the figure given .as the horsepower of the engine is much above its normal output.
Aveling & Porter, Limited, of Rochester (Stand No. 2).
This company has, for the last so years, been devoted exclusively to the designing and building of road locomotives of all kinds and we have a right, therefore, to expect from its works a powerful and handy steam tractor to meet the requirements of the Local Government Board, Such a madhine is Aveling's, compound, steam. tractor which is shown on the above stand. Some of its leading dimensions are _given in our table on page 333. Both the high and the low-pressure cylinders are steam jacketed and the low-pressure cylinder is fitted with an auxiliary valve. A feature of the design of these tractors is the provision of an attachment to the smoke-box end of the boiler, by means of which a centrally-pivoted, leading roller may be fitted in place of the usual leading axle and wheels. The tractor is thereby converted into a medium-weight roller.
Wm. Foster & Co., Limited, of Lincoln (Stand No. 19).
The Wellington, steam tractor exhibited by this company is the third of this make which has been built to the order of Pickfoed's, Limited, the well-known carriers of London. It is, practically, a duplicate of the Wellington motor: which took part in the recent R.A.C. trials, in which it gained the silver medal for its class. It is, however, fitted with tanks which have a capacity sufficient for .15 miles only, whereasthe trials machine conld. cover 25 miles on one filling. At the "request of the purchaser, the motor has been mounted on Tangent wheels, a make, by the way, Which appears to be giving complete satisfaction to several users of steam wagons and tractors whose vehicles are fitted with them. Several examples may be seen daily in the London streets. Amongst recent repeat orders received by this company is one for six more Wellington tractors for the War Office.
John Fowler & Co., Limited, of Leeds (Stand No. 20)'
Of the two steam tractors on this company's stand, the three-cylinder, compound model is the most interesting. This engine is built on the same lines as this maker's twocylinder compound tractor, but an extra, low-pressure cylinder is provided, as shown in our illustration on this page. The cylinder there marked (A) is 34 inches in diameter and is supplied with steam at 200lb. per square inch; this passes from that cylinder to the two lowpressure cylinders, one of which is 31 inches, and the other 7 inches, in diameter. The two smaller-diameter cylinders are arranged tandem fashion and all the pistons have a stroke of 8 inches. We illustrated, in our issue of last week, a tractor of this type, known as Fowler's " David " type, which was employed by the German military authorities during their recent trials. The advantage claimed for the three-cylinder arrangement is that, when the starting cock for admitting high-pressure steam into the lowpressure cylinder is opened, the engine immediately works as a double-cylinder engine, the high-pressure cylinder being converted for the moment into a differential cylinder, and the two low-pressure cylinders working as a doublecylinder engine with full bailer pressure.
Wallis & Steevens, Limited, of Basingstoke.
(Stand No. 20).
This company exhibits one of its standard steam tractors which is fitted with this maker's patent, compound, enclosed type of engine, in which all the link motion and working parts are completely under cover and running in oil. Another feature of this tractor is the means whereby the draught is regulated. This is effected by closing up the smoke-box cnd of a number of the fire tubes, thus checking the passing of the products of combustion to such an extent that, when the damper is quite closed down, just sufficient opening is allowed to maintain slow combustion. Wasteful blowing at the relief valve is avoided by the use of this damper, yet a full head of steam can be maintained, no matter how long the tractor may be kept standing idle.
Clayton & Shuttleworth, Limited, of Lincoln. (Stand No. 27.)
Horse users will be interested to know that at a large limestone quarry one of this company's " Little Hercules," compound, steam tractors, similar to the one shown, enabled its owner to dispense with the use of six horses which had cost (for corn alone) no less than 44 ios. per week, or 4234 per annum, as against 4t 7s. per week, or .47o per annum, in fuel for the tractor, which also proved more advantageous in every other respect. Another satisfied owner, in writing to the makers, states : "The engine only required one watering-up in a 13-mile journey. I would not let him go any extra speed, on account of the engine's being
luite new." This, we think, speaks well for the efficiency if the machine, as its tanks are not exceptionally large.
The " Little Hercules " is certainly the premier exhibit m this company's stand, and it will well repay a careful xamination. Its engine, as will be seen from our table, s the largest of any of the tractors at ".The HAL" It will also be seen that its boiler has the largest amount of tenting surface and grate area. A company's sales can generally be taken as an indication of the quality of its goods, and of the satisfaction which they give to their users. Clayton and Shuttleworth has made and sold upwards of roo,000 engines, to which splendid total its latest production is now adding its quota.
H. P. Saunderson & Co., Limited, of Elstow, Bedford. (Stand No. 4.) The principal exhibit on this company's stand is one of its soh.p., " Universal," agricultural motors. In this type, all the road wheels (three in number) are drivers. The great claim for this arrangement is the increased adhesion which is obtained and which allows of the hauling of much heavier loads on ordinary roads, without any slipping of the wheels, The adhesion of the wheels on this type of machine was amply demonstrated at the ploughing match of the North Kent Agricultural Association which was held at Dartford, on the 7th of last month. Throughout this match the Saunderson motor hauled a Ransome, fourfurrow plough without having to employ any spuds or paddles to get the necessary grip on the ground. In addition to testing the capabilities of the motor for ploughing, it Was also tried as a tractor, on soft ground and on a hill, and during these tests iL hauled a gross load of six to seven tons with ease, winning the gold medal and the good opinions of many, influential, local farmers, This machine has now been standardised by its maker, and considerable attention has been paid recently to its smaller and more unimportant details, so that its general appearance and finish are better than they formerly were. The four-cylinder, soh.p. engine is most effectively cooled by the large, tubular radiator which is now placed high :up on the machine; the efficiency and regularity of this cooler is such that a water temperature of about 7o degrees above that of the atmosphere is rarely exceeded. The machine is fitted with roller bearings for all the wheels and. the transmission shafts, and the length of the roller bearings used is now double what it was originally; they are, further, fitted with hardened-steel bushes and the wear should, therefore, be exceedingly small. A double-bevel, 'geared countershaft permits of the use of the throe changes of speed in either direction, making the motor easy to handle and manmuvre within confined spaces. As paraffin fuel is used for feeding this engine, the cost of running is fairly low. -Another interesting -Saunderson exhibit is a singlecylinder, air-cooled, petrol engine, in which a special arrangement and proportioning of the exhaust valve has
much to do with its efficient running. This engineis supplied, with a friction clutch and a two-speed pulley, in a very handy form for driving farm machinery. The cylinder is 4 inches in diameter, and the piston has a stroke of 5 inches.
The Ivel Agricultural Motors, Limited, of 45, Great Marlborough Street, London, W. (Stand No. 169).
No show connected with agriculture would be complete without one of the little, " Ivel " motors. The one shown in the gallery at the Agricultural Hall represents the latest type of machine turned out from this company's works, at Biggleswade. This is the fifth year in succession that " Ivel " motors have been on view at the Smithfield Show. Since last year, the power of the engine has been increased to 20h.p., and many other, small improvements have also been effected : arnongq these is the system of engine lubrication, which is now ensured by circulating the lubricating oil by means of a pump. The company's paraffin vaporiser has now been considerably improved since its introduction some three years ago, and it :can be fitted at a small, extra cost. The use of this fitting would, of course, enable the machine to do the same quantity of work at a lower charge for fuel. This motor, the pioneer of agricultural motors, has won no less than 30 gold and silver medals since its advent into the motor world, and it has earned high praise from its many users. The manager of the Empire Fibre Company, of Brazil, writes -"I bought last May, for this company, one of your iSh.p. agricultural motors and have the idea of ordering another one for this year. I think your motor is a machine which is bound to revolutionise all agricultural practice, and mine has given me entire satisfaction." To take a case nearer home, Mr. P. E. Frank, of Oxford, states ;—" The motor has never gone so well as it has the last few weeks, and it has been of great service." These are but two of the many eulogistic letters which this company has received from all parts of the world. Its total weight of some 35 cwt. somewhat limits its capabilities for hauling on the road, but there is no doubt whatever that it is a marvellous little machine. Marshall, Sons & Co., Limited, of Gainsborough. (Stand No. 13.)
From our point of view, the most interesting exhibit on this company's stand is one of its agricultural oil motors. We have so recently described and illustrated this machine (see our issue of last week) that we do not intend to go into any of the details of its construction. We will refer our readers to the line drawing on this page, in which the general disposition of the principal component parts is clearly shown. The capabilities of this motor were recently fully demonstrated near Gainsborough, When it was kept continuously at work for 24 hours. During that time, it ploughed between 21-. and 22 acres of land, at a cost for fuel of just over od. per acre. About two gallons of paraffin, at 41d. per gallon, was consumed for each acre ploughed. In our last issue we gave accurate and detailed costs for running and upkeep, and we there showed that it was possible to do ploughing at just under 3s. per acre, making full allowances for interest, depreciation, and repairs.
The machine is well built, is of stiff design, and may well he expected to yield good results in agricultural work. Savage Brothers, Limited, of King's Lynn. (Stand No. 24.)
The only steam wagon exhibited at the Smithfield Show is that which this maker ran so successfully through the recent R.A.C. Trials, for which performance it WRS awarded a gold medal. Its compound engine has one high-pressure cylinder 4inches in diameter, and a low-pressure cylinder 71 inches in diameter, whilst the crankshaft gives to both pistons a 6-inch stroke. At its normal speed of 454) r.p.ni. it develops 35h.p. On the design of this engine and the transmission gear, much care has been bestowed : the whole of the gearing, and, in fact, every working part except the two side chains, by which the drive is transmitted to the back wheels, is completely enclosed in one of the most practical casings which we have seen. " Close quarters" are unknown in this containing case, and the extra-large, inspection covers give free access to every part, when it becomes necessary to make adjustments or repairs. The tubular boiler, with its go square feet of heating surface and 4 square feet of grate area, keeps the engine supplied with dry steam at a pressure of 2201b. per square inch. There are many practical features about this wagon, not the least of which is the ingenious arrangement of the steering gear ; this we described and illustrated inour issue of the i ith of April last when dealing with Cording-ley's show. The design of this machine is sound throughout and the judges of the Club were evidently impressed.