WHEELS OF INDUSTRY.
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As a result of recent experiments made in America, it has been proved that heat is as important as speed in connection with the life of pneumatic tyres on commercial vehicles. If we suppose that a tyre, running regularly at 20 m.p.h. and at a temperature of 40 degrees Cent., has an effective life of 10,000 miles, then the same tyre running at a temperature of 60 degrees
will last only 5,500 miles. Likewise, at 80 degrees, the life will be reduced to 3,200 miles and at 100 degrees to only 2,000 miles. Comparing this with the increase of speed, the life of a tyre will diminish as the speed rises. Thus, at 40 M.p.h. it will last 7,000 miles at 40 degrees, 3,800 miles at 60 degrees, 2,500 miles at 80 degrees and 1,500 miles at 100 degrees.
A Fleet of 2:ctonners Required.
We have received an inquiry from overseas regarding the building-up of a comparatively large fleet of buses for which 2-ton chassis with forward control are required. The chief points necessary in the construction are low frame height. low floor height, pneumatic tyres (singles or twins for the rear wheels) and chassis which can be knocked down for shipment. We are informed that the first order will be for 20-30 chassis. They are required for service on absolutely flat roads.
Manufacturers wishing to quote should write as soon as possible to "Lowbus," care of The Editor.
Leyland's New Zealand Activities.
A very good idea of the attention which Leyland Motors, Ltd., gives to overseas markets is indicated by a book/et the company has just issued. This deals with the activities of the maker's New Zealand branch, and contains a large number of illustrations of typical vehicles supplied through it. Leyland Motors, Ltd., aims to give through all its branches the same sales and service facilities that are enjoyed by those users who can quite readily get into touch with the main organization. The pictures in the booklet make it clear that Leyland products have achieved striking success in municipal spheres in New Zealand.
Transport Employers' Conference.
The Conference of Merseyside Road Transport Employers (which comprises ten associations) held a meeting at Liverpool on September 28th to receive a report on the recent negotiations with the Liverpool Carters' and Motormen's Union. The conference made application for a reduction in the existing rates of pay-4s. in the ease of the wages of senior motormen and of 2s. in that of juniors. This proposal the Union refused to accept, but when the employers suggested the reference of the matter to arbitration, the men offered to accept a reduction of 2s. seniors and is, juniors. This offer cams before the conference.
The present rates of pay for Liverpool motor drivers are higher than the B20 average for the country and are as follow :—Drivers of six-wheelers, 78s. per week, second men 71s.; steam. vehicle drivers 72s., second men 65s.; petrol vehicles (under two tons), drivers 65s., second men 64s.; petrol vehicles, (over two tons), drivers 72s., second men 65s.; petrol vehicles (under one ton), drivers 59s., trailer men 59s.
The World Automobile Congress.
Delegates from 40 countries attended the Fifth World Automobile Congress, which opened in Rome on Wednesday of last week. The Governor of Rome and the Minister of National Economy made speeches emphasizing the importance, from the point of view of social Progress, of the development of mechanical road transport.
Travelling Cinema Vans.
Blunt and McCormack, Ltd., 20, Bedford Street, London, W.C.2, a concern which produces instructional and technical films and which makes up-to-date cinematograph apparatus, has lately designed a number of special bodies for motor vehicles used by various societies, etc., in connection with the displaying of films for propaganda and advertising purposes. The bodies are Mounted on British chassis, amongst these being a number of Thornycroft and Morris-Commercial makes, and they are equipped as 'travelling cinemas with the company's patent projecting apparatus, which enables films to be shown in broad daylight. We shall deal with this matter more fully in an early issue.
In a Line or Two.
The 20,000th taxicab in Paris has recently been put into service, and more than one-half of the vehicles are stated to be of an up-to-date type.
Ribble Motor Services, Ltd., is to erect a large garage in Dale Street, Liverpool.
The health committee of the Glasgow Corporation has decided to issue a special appeal to all users of steampropelled vehicles in the city requesting them to use smokeless fuel.
We are informed by Dodge Bros. (Britain), Ltd., that the price of the Graham Brothers new six-cylinder oneton truck will be £255, and not £225, as was announced In The Commercial Motor and elsewhere. A Booking Agent's New Development.
It is interesting to note that the Globe Travel Co., Ltd., Bush House, Strand, London, W.C.2, the well-known booking company, is separating its booking organization connected with longdistance road travel from that concerned with its other numerous and ' diverse agencies. The new department is to be situated in the west wing of Bush House, which is now under construction, and the booking will there be carried on tinder the title of Road Travel Bookings, Ltd. The Mikes will be organized on up-to-date lines, special ticket-racks being installed, on the railway principle.
In the new wing will he a café, public telephones and cables, branches of important banks, hairdressing saloons, confectionery and tobacco, kiosks, and lavatory conveniences, all of which will be open to the public and thus handy for the company's patrons. We understand that the services running to and from the premises will include those from London to Liverpool, Cardiff, Nottingham and Worthing. It is statedthat about 30 coaches, carrying an average of approximately 500 to GOO passengers, leave the concern's present premises daily.
A Corporation's Sight-seeing Buses.
During Civic Week, September 24th29th, the Liverpool Corporation had a fleet of motorbuses in daily service making tours of the city, and obtained patronage that in previous years had gone to the private operators. Extraordinary good value in travel was offered for the modest charge of 1s. 6d. Passengers had to book in advance and the itinerary allowed three visits, each of 1i hours' duration, to the cathedral, Allerton Hall and Calderstories Park, after which the journey was continued via Childwall Abbey and Botanic Gardens, back to St. George's Hall, the starting place. These tours commenced at 10.30 a.m. and 2.30 p.m., and each occupied 21 hours, of which 11 hours were travelling time. The fare of is. 6d. included refreshments. at Allerton Hall. These tours were arranged mainly for visitors to the city and to enable them to see as much of Liverpool as possible in a short time.
A Section to Study.
In our classified advertisement columns this week will be found details of an agency required for agricultural tractors by a coneern in Finland.
We would also direct the attention of those of our .readers who may be interested to the "Situations Wanted" column of this section, wherein it will be found that a number of men who have had useful experience in the motor industry are offering their services.
Representing a Coaehbuilder.
We understand that Mr. W. W. Davidson, late managing director of Davidson (Trafford Park), Ltd., of Manchester, is now representing W.-J. Smith and Son, Ltd., a coachbuilding concern, of \Vest Bromwich,
British Steam Wagon's Success In Chile.
One of the problems which has for some time engaged the attention, of the municipal authorities of Santiago, Chile, has been that relating to the • sanitary services of the city. The Council of Citizens is now engaged in modernizing the system of refuse collection which up to now has been effected by means of mule-drawn carts. Trials lately carried out with a Super Sentinel steam wagon are reported to have yielded most satisfactory results. In one district 74 carts and 180 animals were until recently daily employed in this work, the maximum output of each cart being two journeys per day. Now,
(Top) One of the latest Bristol goods carrying models—a 40 h.p. 4-ton chassis on pneumatic tyres. (Centre) The Dykehead and Shona Co-opera. five Society, Ltd., has recently taken delivery of this Cornmer 30-cwt. lorry, the body of which has slatted drop sides, detachable tailboard and ridge pole. The vehicle is intended for coal Or general transport. (Bottom) An 2i ton high-sided lorry built to meet the requirements of a Sussex company of builders'
however, the steam wagon collects all the refuse in a very short time, conveys about 5 tons of rubbish on each trip, and makes 10 trips per day.
Expansion of Canadian Industry.
According to the Dominion Bureau of Statistics at Ottawa, 25,226 motor vehicles, valued at 14,399,422 dollars, were produced in Canada during July. Although this output was 11 per cent. less in number and 16 per cent, below the sales value of the figures for June, it was more than double the number of vehicles produced in July, 1927. Compared with the in evious month, there was an increase in the production of lorries from 781 to 856, and in chassis from 4,363 to 6,511.
The Canadian automobile industry continues to expand, and the figures dealing with cumulative production for the seven months ended July last give support to this fact, for in this period 150,214 vehicles were produced, as against 137,795 vehicles during the corresponding period of 1927.
Another German Diesel Engine.
The Dents Motorenfabrik Gesellschaft of Dents, Cologne, has lately introduced a new Diesel engine for use on commercial motor vehicles.
Are Bus Tickets Goods?
That bus tickets were goods, as set out in the Street Trading Act, was the extraordinary contention of the prosecution in a case against a bus conductor heard recently in Dublin. The defence was that a ticket is not an article of substance, brit is merely proof of the holder's right to travel on the bus and is returned to the bus proprietor or his representative during, or at the end of, the journey. The court agreed and held that there could be no sale when the article supposed to be sold did not become the property of the purchaser.
Insurance by Tender.
In South Africa the insurance of municipal motor vehicles is apparently not in accordance with fixed rates, but is put up for tender. Thus, we learn that the municipal authorities of Cape Town recently invited tenders for the insurance in respect of all risks in connection with the council's fleet of motor vehicles.
Municipal Motorbus Returns at Halifax.
During the year ended on March 31st last considerable extensions were made in the motorbus department of the Halifax Corporation and not only was the fleet increased, but new routes were opened out. The effect of this is shown in the annual report on the finances of the department by the borough treasurer. During the year the total income has increased from £28,810 to 142,830, • but the income per vehicle-mile has been reduced from 12.80d. in 1927 to 10.95d. in 1928. The total 'expenditure has increased frail £21,857, or 9.71d. per vehicle-mile in 1927, to £35,4T2, or 9.05d. per vehiele-mile, in the year which has just closed. The year's working resulted in a gross profit of £7,408, as against 16,953 in the preceding year. Against this, however, had to be placed a sum of £6,064 in respect of sinking fund and interest , charges, and £5,644 as a proportion of the cost of the purchase of the Ryburn Garage Co., Ltd„ which was acquired by the corporation. This resulted in a net loss of £4,300, which has been met by a transfer from the tyres-suspense account.
In the accounts of the committee is shown a receipt of approxi mately £206 from the Hudders field Corporation under the agree ment with the corporation for the running of motorbuses over the Bailiffs Bridge tramway route. In the preceding year, the amount received was approximately £136: On the motorbuses, the total capital expenditure was £40,484, whilst the loan debt at the end of the year amounted to £29,746. There was a surplus of 1601 on the parcels-traffic account, as compared with a sum of £613 in 1927. It is interesting to note that the tramway' amounts show a net loss of £513 in the period which is covered by the report.
Bean Vehicles for West Africa. Bean Cars, Ltd., reports the receipt of Orders from the Crown Agents for the Colonies for 30-cwt. vehicles for the Nigerian frontier force, police force, public works department, and medical, sanitary and veterinary services. n21
A New French Two-stage Gas-producer.
La Societe dAlbret, of Nerac, France, has patented a new two-stage gas-producer, the stages being superimposed and distinct. They are separated by _a grill which permits the passage of any charcoal resulting from the carbonization of wood in the upper portion of the producer. , The lower Portion functions as a gas-producer, utilizing the charcoal as fuel, reducing the pieces and transforming the carbon dioxide of the first partial combustion into carbon monoxide. The reactions are effected at a high temperature on a layer of pieces of refractory material placed on the fire-bars of the lower part of the producer.
A Change of Ownership.
Tq. the long list of motorbus undertakings acquired by the West Yorkshire Road Co., Ltd., of Harrogate, must now be added that of Messrs. John Cole and Sons, of Leeds, who ran services to Ilkley, Otley and Bowdon, from Leeds. The 'West Yorkshire Road Co., Ltd., which has over 200 buses in service in the West Riding area, with depots in Harrogate (where the head office is situated), Leeds, Bradford and Keighley, runs buses over 60 routes, and some of the busiest of these routes are in the same neighbourhood as those worked by Messrs. Cole and Sons.
Popular Plywood Products.
The Tucker Armoured Plywood Co., Ltd., Crayford, Kent, has just issued a really interest•
jug catalogue giving much information concerning its S.T.C. products, these, as will doubtless be remembered, including plywood and Armourply, the latter being a special metal-covered plywood, which is praying very popular for use in connection with the construction of many types of bus and high-class van body. The booklet is clearly produced, and the details which it gives of the manufacture of bent plywood for bus roofs, etc., and of insulating, boards incorporating
cork sections in which the company also specializes, make quite good 'reading.
Sheffield Widens Roads for. Buses.
At a meeting of the Sheffield Corporation the general manager of the tramways and motors department stated that there was a demand for a motorbus service in the Norton district, but such a facility could not be provided until a certain road-widening scheme had been carried out. The corporation has decided to make arrangements for the undertaking of the widening scheme at a cost of £8,000.
Bradford's Post Office Motorvans.
Until recently the Bradford post office had eight one-ton vans in service for parcel collection and delivery, but now a new -fleet of vans, numbering 18 in all, has been put into service in, order to facilitatedelivery and collec
tion of parcels and letters and to ease the burden of the postman.
A Progressive Road-transport Department.
The road-transport committee of the Nottingham Chamber of Commerce has recently reported that the traffic returns for the half-year ended June 30th last showed an increase of 231 per cent. over the figure for the corresponding period of last year. The road-transport committee of the Chamber continues to make good headway, and its progress is strikingly indicated by the fact that during March last the amount of traffic dealt with was the largest in the history of the department.
What a Census Revealed.
A recent traffic census taken on the Hastings road at Bexhill reveals since the census taken in 1025 increases cf 62 per cent. in Motorcycles, 91 per cent. in motorcars, 93 per cent, in motor lorries and vans, 178 per cent, in motorbuses and motor coaches, and decreases of 39 per cent. in horsed vehicles (light) and 61 per cent. in horsed vehicles (heavy). .
Enterprise of a Dennis Agent.
The Yorkshire distributor for the commercia/-yehicle products of Dennis Bros., Ltd., of Guildford, P. IL Dutson (Leeds), Ltd., of Leeds, recently displayed a commendable enterprise by organizing a Dennis week, during which a tour of the area which the company covers was undertaken by a representative fleet of goods and passenger ve hicles. This included a 30-ewt. lorry on pneumatic tyres, a 4-ton lorry, an 18-seater Gstype .lowload line parlour coach, a Gstype chassis fitted with an ambulance body, a 25seater de luxe parlour coach embodying t h e maker's F-type low-load line chassis and a 32seater E-type bus similar to the type which has been supplied to many municipalities.
Attended by representatives of the agent, the vehicles paid a visit to many Yorkshire towns and villages, where the opportunity was taken for demonstrating the capabilities of the different vehicles to prospective purchasers. An accompanying illustration showsthe vehicles at the beadquar'srs of the agent Bus Competition Affects Steamer Fares.
It is stated by the Tyne-Tees Shipping Co., Ltd., that, as a result of the competition of road transport, it has decided to reduce the steamer fares from Tyne to London for the winter months. As from October 1st, the return second-class fare will be 17s. 6d., and the single fare 10s.
America's Hold on the Dutch East Indies Market,
According to a recent return no fewer than 3,051 motorvans and lorries were imported last year into the Dutch East Indies. The market is mainly controlled by American makers who were responsible for 2,597 vehicles of the total or approximately 85 per cent. Canada took second plitee With .305 vehicles and Great Britain third with 49 vehicleS.
Lorry-construction Difficulties in • Russia. ..
Further details of the steps which are being taken to increase the production of Motor harries in Russia were given at a recent meeting of the Council of Economy of the Soviet Government. One speaker stated that the production of 24-ton lorries at the Yaroslav works had been delayed owing to the absence of suitable engines. The Auto Trust bad, however, made arrangements with the German Daimler-Bens Co. for the supply of engines and for technical assistance, whilst a number of Russian engineers and workmen are being sent to the Dainaler-Bens works to undergo a , course of training. It is estimated that this year 280 lorries will be produced at the Amo works, and that in 1929 the output will be increased to 1,300 vehicles.
Accident Risks on Buses..
In a report to the Stoke-on-Trent Watch Committee upon his recent annual examination of motorbuses, MT. W. Melling, the examiner to • the corporation, states that each year brings some fresia problems which have to be dealt with. He refers to braking systems, and says that during the past year various mechanical devices have been adopted, all of which are Sound in principle, but may be liable to failure in certain circumstances. He thinks, therefore, that it is advisableto send a circular letter to the proprietors pointing out that the side brakes of buses must be kept in first-class order. Every
vehicle, he says, is sound and satisfactory from a braking standpoint when inspected, but when dealing with the question it is advisable to leave no loop-hole for any chance of excuse.
Another point which he thinks should be considered is that new buses are being supplied with glass corner panels at the rear. As these are at present constructed they are perfectly sound, but the majority of accidents occur to the corners of vehieles and there is the. risk of damage through breaking glass. He urges the committee to make provision for this point in the new regulations.
It is quite a familiar sight nowadays to see high-class delivery vans and modern saloon coaches fitted with in:rimers both fore and aft, and there is little question that such equipment is of value, particularly where the vehicles
are operating in busy traffic areas. A company which is in a. position to supply bumpers for all types of vehicle is. Elephant Motors, Ltd.; 97-163, Newington Causeway, London, S.E. The company markets a range of patterns and has recently found it possible to effect price reductions in the various models. The model which is intended for use on many types of comnierciai
vehicle now sells at £7 10s.
Record Motor Vehicle Shipments.
It is stated that 'shipments of motor vehicles from the United States during the month of August reached a new record, totalling 485,000 vehicles. This figure is 28,000 above the previous high record which was reached in April, 1920. . Some of the most prominent American motor-vehicle manufacturers are now predicting that the output for the current year will exceed that for the boom year of 1920.
Irish Free State Motorbus Statistics.
The most recent statistical statement issued by the Irish Free State Department of Industry and Commerce shows a remarkable increase in the number of passengers carried per month by buses operating in that country. In July last over two million passengers were carried in Dublin alone, whilst in the entire country nearly three million passengers were carried. These figures show an increase cif half a million over those for June, whilst the receipts of the bus companies are up by 110,000. The average passenger receipts per vehicle mile show a slight increase.
Since the start of the year fifteenand-a-half million passengers have been carried by the buses, and the gross receipts have been £314,805. Motorbuses crossing the border of Northern Ireland have carried 197,367 passengers during the seven months, the figure for July, 38,173, being the highest ye t recorded f or one month. Companies operating in the Irish Free State now number 128, and of these 14 had receipts for July in excess of £1,000. These pictures show some of the transport difficulties encountered in Malaya and how useful Thornycroft sixwheelers are proving in overcoming them. The type KB 5 banner shown was supplied by Thornycroft(Singapo re), Ltd., to the Perak River Hydro Electric Power Co., Ltd., which is using it for carrying heavy machinery and materials from the station at Kuala Kangsar to the site of a new darn 22 miles distant.
Safety First. at Brighton.
A local branch of the Safety First Association is to be formed at Brighton, where the chief constable has reported upon the need for. education in regard to the prevention of accidents, stating that, with the rapid •development of road transport and the increasing risks which have to .be faced by all road users, every possible step should be taken to check the growth of accidents.
Bodies for Six-wheelers. • Charles Roberts and Co., Ltd, of Harbury Junction, near Wakefield, informs us that its road-vehicle department has recently received an order from the War Office for 42 bodies and cabs for fitting to medium-capacity .six-wheeled chassis.
Eight-cylinder Taxicabs for Australia. .
A new company has recently been formed in Perth with the title of the West Australian Tourists' and Travellers' Taxi Co. for the purpose of running a fleet of Studebaker taxicabs which will be fitted with " straighteight" engines.
Pneumatic-tyre Experiments on Trolley-buses.
The transport department of the Darlington Corporation has decided to experiment with pneumatic tyres on trolley-buses in order to ascertain the suitability of this equipment for use under local conditions. Two vehicles are to be shod with equipment of this character, and it is expected that the experiments will extend over a period of six to nine months, at the end of which time the results achieved will determine future policy regarding the conversion of the whole fleet to pneumatic tyres.
Fuel Supply to Fleets.
Liquid Measurements, Ltd., Hammond Works, Chase Estate, North Acton, London, N.W.10, has just issued a pamphlet which describes the Hammond petrol-metering columns designed specially for use in motorbus and large commercial garages. Apart from general information relating to the supply of fuel to fleets of vehicles, features of the Hammond visible system are enumerated.
More Long-distance Services from Newcastle.
Although the holiday season 'is now virtually at an end there are no signs of any diminution in the number of long-distance services worked from Newcastle; indeed, still more are being opened up. In the past few days new services have been opened by the Abbey Motor Services, between Newcastle and Bradford, via Leeds and Harrogate, and between Newcastle and Sheffield by . the Diamond Motors, whilst another undertaking has commenced to run vehicles between Newcastle and Carlisle, a route already worked by Messrs. Emerson Bros. Newcastle certainly figures most prominently in the list of centres from which long-distance sere vices are run.