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18th March 1924, Page 4
18th March 1924
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Page 4, 18th March 1924 — WHEELS OF INDUSTRY.
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Which of the following most accurately describes the problem?

64 Vie ieheels of wealtb will be slowed by all difficulties of transport at whatever po-ints arising, as a carriage is by

the roughness of the roads over which it runs."—John Beattie Crozier, :

London's Independent Buses.

The case for the independent buses running in London, that is to say, those which are outside the combine, has -recently been placed before the members of tho House of Parliament, not, of course, for any action to be takeu, bat so that they may be au fait with the arguments which are advanced in favour of competition in the public bus services of the Metropolis.

We understand front the secretary of the Association of London Omnibus Proprietors, Ltd. (to which a large number of the independent bus owners belong), that the aSseciation is now making arrangements for the insurance of the vehicles of members and for the obtaining of advertisement contracts. The secretary, whose address is 59-61, New Oxford Street, London, W.C.1, will be glad to bear from bus owners, present and prospeotive, who are not yet members.

De Dion Buses for Spain.

Messrs, De Dion-Bouton, of Paris, have just obtained .-urf important contract for the supply of motor omnibuses to the city of Madrid. The .Madrid 'Motor Omnibus Co: have ordered 110 vehicles, and the first.. deliveries are to be made during the month of May.

These onmibusei will. be 34-seater single-cleckers., • The bodies are to. be mounted on examples of the De Dion overtype chassis, which has a fontcylinder engine with a bora and stroke of 110 mm. and 150 mm. respectively, a four-speed gearbox and, bevel drive. Eront-wheel brakes and electric lighting will be included in the equipment of the vehicles, but starters will not be fitted. All the omnibuses will run on pneu

aliatic tyres. .

Ownership of London's Buses.

Figures indicating the number of omnibuses owned by the London traffic combine licensed in the years 1913, 1920 and 1923, and the number not owned by the combine, were given recently by the Under-Secretary of the Home Office in reply to a question put to him in the House of Commons. In the year 1913 there were 3,162 combine buses and 316 non-combine vehicles '•_2,983 combine and 199 non-combine in 1920; 4,472 combine. and 645 non-combine in 1923.

C.M.U.A. North-Eastern Division.

The second annual general meeting of the N.-E. Division (Sheffield and Rotherhamarea.) of the Commercial Motor Users Association was held at the Royal ,Victoria Station Hotel, Sheffield, on March 5th.

The chair was occupied by Mr. 5. Gihbins, and amongstthose present were Mr. H. dofferies (vice-chairman) and Messrs. G. Caudle, H. Crrocock, J. Paget, T. S. Boothroyd, W. 1Vakela,m (the area

• hon, secretary) and a large number of members.

The chairman, in his speech, dealt with tho questions of licences and taxation, the encroachment by municipal authorities on passenger undertakings, the Eight-hour Day Bill at present before Parliament, and roads and bridges. He showed that. the association had done good work in dealing with these various matters, and he greatly praised the work of the hon, secretary and staff.

The bon. secretary, in his speech, went rather fully into1he work of the committee during the year. This has covered a very wide field and in its results has undoubtedly conferred benefits upon the membership.

The officials and committee to serve during the coming year were elected, and the meeting closed with the usual corapliment• to the chair.

Tilling-Stevens Report..

The report of Tilling Stevens Motors, Ltd., for the year 1.923 records a profit of £33,183, compared with a sum of £22,860 which was made in the prev)ous year. Of this sum £15,000 is to be transferred to the depreciation reserve and -£8,030 set aside for possible loss on the realization of investments, leaving £10,183, which reduces the debit balance to £148,339.

Rail-less Cars for Ayr.

The Town Council of Ayr is considering the expediency of applying for a Provisional Order to enable it to lain railless cars on the sea-front and by way of Longhill Avenue to Burns's monument. If this scheme matures it -will be the first instance of trolley-buses being ,introduced on any public thoroughfare north of the Border:

We understand that Messrs Citroens are taking over the big S.O.M.U.A. works at Saint-Ouen as an annexe to their factory on the Quai de Javel.

The New Tyne Bridge.

The Parliamentary Committee of the Newcastle Corporation has now issued a report, on the proposed Bill in Parliament for a new bridge across the River Tyne between the city of Newcastle and Gateshead.

With respect to the site, the coinmittee advise e line between the foot ,of Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, and High Street, Gateshead. It is .proposed that the river shall be crossed -by one span and that there, shall be no pier in the water. The clear headroom above high W ater mark in ordinary spring tides, suggests, as 84 ft. The carriage-way will not be less than 38 ft. in -width, with two footpaths of not less than 9 ft. in width. The structure will be capable of carrying a double set of tramway lines and there will be no restriction on the weight of single vehicles using the bridge.

A rough estimate of the cost of the new bridge and approaches is given as

£ 580,000, with engineering expenses at £58,000, and land and easements at 2250,000. Roughly, it seems that an expenditure of £1,000,000 will be incurred.

At the present.moment tramway cars cause a great deal of congestion on the old High Level Bridge across the 'Tyne, and as the structure is the only, Main...road connecting linkwith nbrth and south,. a new bridge is necessary. When the latter is completed we underatancl that the tramway. tracks will be removed from the old bridge, leaving it free for ordinary road traffic.

Opposition to London's Bridge Proposal.

The Minister of Transport, Mr. Harry Gosling, C.I1,, last week received a deputation which represented the London Society, the Town Planning Institute, the Architecture Club and the Royal Institute of British Architects,. who advanced arguments in favour of the abandoning or deferring of the scheme proposed by the City Corporation for the erection of what is referred to as St. Paiil's Bridge, crossing the Thames at a high level close to St. Paul's Cathedral, Mr. Rees Jeffreys was one of the deputation. The Minister, in reply, said that the deputation asked him to do a very big thing if they suggested that he should reverse the decision of ins predecessors to assist towards the cast of the approaches. (We believe the amount suggested as a contribution from the Road Fund was about £800,000.) The Minister, however, has promised that he will carefully consider the arguments which have. been placed before him. He says that the traffic aspect received very great consideratienfrorrahe experts and advisers of the Ministry and that the scheme had already received Parliamentary sanction in 1911.

In the advertisement of Short Ri.os. (Rochester and Bedford), Ltd., which appeared in our March 4th issue, the vehicle which was illustrated was one of three railless cars recently built by this company for the Ipswich Corporation, and not as stated.

The World's Lorries.

According to figures issued by the American Department of Commerce there were 2,345,850 commercial motor vehicles in .operation throughout the world at the end of 1923.

Of this total, 1,796,356 are in use in the United States. The United Kingdom comes next with 173,363 motor lorries and buses, and is followed by France, 92,553; Canada, 89,000; Geemany, 51,739; Italy, 30,000; Belgium, 12,000; Australia, 8,934; Spain, 8,000; Sweden, 8,000; Cuba, 6,500; Switzerland, 6.342; the Irish Free State, 5,500; Philippine Islands, 4,200; Holland, 3,855; India, 3,784; Austria, 3,582; Mexico, 3,401; .Diitch East Indies, 3,241; British West. Africa, 2,925; Norway, 2,836; Japan, 2,500; CzechoSlovakia, 2,301; and Rumania, 2,250. Other countries in which more than 1,000 lorries are in use are Brazil, Morocco, Peru and Porto Rico.

A number of important countries are shown witth, the total number of cont

mercial vehicles merged with the pas

senger-car figures. If it be estimated that 10 per cent, of the aggregates consist of lorries, then the following figures are obtained:—Algeria 872; Malaysia, 400; South Africa, 4880; Denmark, 4,220; Hawaii, 1,683; New Zealand, 4,486; and Russia, 1,400.

More Bus Stations in Wales.

Ens station developments continue to be of interest in South Wales, and, in addition to the projected schemes of erection by the municipal authoritiee at Swansea. and Caerphilly (details of which have been given in previous issues of The Oonumereial Motor), there is a probability of a bus station being erected by private enterprise at Chepst6w.

The Bristol Tramways and Carriage Co., Ltd., have acquired a site near the railway station for conversion into a motorbus depot and bus station. Chepstow is the eastern terminus of the company's services, and it is understood that the company intend to open up new routes from this centre.

A year ago the proposals of the South Wales Transport Co. for a large garage at the Brunswick Street depot, Swansea, were detailed in an article in our

.columns, which dealt with the operation of the company's fleet of vehicles. This central depot has now been completed, and, apart from accommodating over 100 buses, it serves as the main repair shops for the company's 70 buses.

A Vulcan Depot at Manchester.

The Vulcan Motor and Engineering Co. (1906), Ltd., inform us that they will shortly be opening showrooms. in Mount Street, Manchester, where there will be constantly on view a wide selection of vehicles from the Vulcan range. The depot is centrally situated, being quite close to the Town Hall and the Midland Hotel, and therefore readily accessible to visitors to Manchester.

Making the Marks Gear.

The Merles Steering Co., Ltd., 64, Mortimer Street, London, W.1, inform us that they have recently concluded arrangemente with the Adamant Engin eering Co., Ltd., of Luton, whereby they are appointed the manufacturers and sales agents for the Merles steering gear. The Luton company, who are specialists in design and production of Jigs and high-precision machinery, have been the actual manufacturers of the Merles gears for some years past, and they are now making these gears on quantity-production lines, which not only enables the price to be reduced, but ensures interchangeability of parts and results in renewals or replacements being readily made.

A Fuel Research Appointment.

The Lord President, of the Council of the Department of Scientific and Industial Research has appointed Mr. F. S. Sinnatt, M.B.F. (Mil.), M.Sc. (Tech.),

F.I.C., to be assistant director of fuel research as from April 1st. Mr. Sinnatt is lecturer in fuels in the 'University of Manchester, Faculty of Technology. He is also director of research to the Lancashire and Cheshire Coal Research Association, and has been in charge of the .physical and chemical survey of coal seams which the associa tion

tion s carrying out for the Fuel Research Board in the Lancashire and Cheshire coalfields.

A New Anti-dazzle Bulb.

C. A. Vandervell and Co., Ltd., Acton, London, W.3, have just placed on the market a new bulb, which is claimed to solve the dazzle problem. This new anti-dazzle bulb is provided with two filaments, the rear one being in focus, arid that at the front being shaded by a little semi-circular metal cap.

With the back filament in use, the headlamps give a full normal driving light, but when approaching oncoming vehicles a simple movement of the switch brings the forward filament into use. The metal cap then shields all rays from the bottom of the reflector, and upward rays are not projected to offend other road users.

With the front filament in use, the light is thrown on to the top of the reflector, the downward illumination of the road immediately in front of the vehicle being thus greatly increased.

These bulbs can be fitted to any make of headlamp, the only work entailed being careful focusing and the alteration of the wiring. They are supplied in either 6 volts or 12 volts, the price being 30s. per set, inclndimg C.A,V. dimmer switch and the necessary cables.

The introduction of the new bulb should certainly go a long way towards solving the difficult problem of dazzling headlamps.

Another Trolley-bus Service for Bradford.

Bradford Corporation Tramways Committee recommends equipping the Lidget Green route for use as a trolley-bus service, and in connection with the scheme suggests the purchase of four trolley-buses.

Stainless Fittings for Coaches. The Stainless and Non-Corrosivei Metals Co., Ltd., 14, Weaman Street, Birmingham, inform us that they are shortly putting on the market a range of motor coach fittings in Stanpruf metal, which is claimed to be as nearly noncorrosive as any white-metal that has yet been produced. Certain of the &tines have been subjected to prolonged trials, during the course of which they have given much satisfaction. Stainless steel fittings of all descriptions are also amongst the company's specialities. 1s21

A Municipal Acquisition,

Fierce competition which has recently raged at Nottingham between the municipal authorities and a private firm in regard to motorbus traffic connecting the city with an important outsde area, has culminated In an arrangement under which these opposing forces are no longer to operate. The corporation has purchased a number of motorbuses f rem Messrs. Barton Bros., who were the pioneers of improved road arrangements on the Beeston route, the condition of the acquisition being that the firm has agreed to discontinue its Nottingham to Beeston service.

The city council had long ago acquired powers to run buses on the Beeston and other suburban roads, but had delayed exercising its Parliamentary authority until there was danger of it being lost through expiration of the statutory period allowed.

A New Ratchet Jack.

The Bradbury ratchet jack, which has just been placed on the market by Messrs. Joseph Bradbury, of Braintree, is of a new and patented design. The jack possesses several interesting features, and, as it is built on the doubleaction ratchet principle, the number of moving parts has been brought to the minimum and friction thus reduced, the result being a light jack wit3i a rapid, easy .action.

The jack is controlled by a long, tubular detachable handle, which locks into position, enabling it to be placed under the aide and withdrawn with absolute

ease. By turning the handle to the left the raising gear is brought into action, whilst a half-turn to the right effects the lowering operation. The jack is made in single-lift and double-lift types at the price of 218. and 25s. respectively.

The Ministry and Covered-in Doubledeckers.

At a meeting of the Bradford Corporation the tramways manager reported that arrangements had been made, at the request of the Ministry of Transport, for technical representatives of the Ministry and a representative of the Metropolitan Police, who were making investigations in connection with the question of the use of covers for the upper decks of motor omnibuses, to visit' Bradford in the course of their in. quiries for the purpose of inspecting the corporation's trolley vehicles with covered top decks.

The Viking in Demand.

In connection with the approaching motor-coaching season, the Albion Motor Car Co., Ltd., inform us that they have experienced a ready .demand for their

new Viking model coach. We have fiom time to time made reference" to this striking vehicle, and amongst a number of orders recently received by the company for vehicles of this type is one for two coaches for use in connection with the large new L.M.S.


way hotel which is to be opened in the near future at the well-known Gleneaglesgolf, course in Perthshire.

The historical associations and beauty of the surrounding country 'of Gleneagles make considerable appeal to road tourists, and by the provision of these two high-class vehicles those staying at the hotel will be given every opportunity of seeing the beauties ofrthe countryside.

Ballast for Buses Under Test.

At a meeting of the Folkestone Watch Committee, the chief constable reported that he had received an offer from the Southern Railway Co. for 140 old rails to be used in connection with the testing of omnibuses, at the price of £16 5s., in addition to the cost of cutting into 18-in. lengths.

The chief constable was authorized to purchase the rails, and the omnibus proprietors whose omnibuses require testing are to be required to provide the necessary labour for loading and unloading the vehicles when the rails are used as ballast.

Road and Bridge Schemes in South Wales.

A scheme for the construction of a new road from Little Mill to New Inn, in order to eliminate the need for the use of the hilly route of the NewportAbergavenny road, is being proposed as an unemployment relief work by the Pontypool Board of Guardians.

Another Monmouthshire project of interest to drivers is the proposal -to widen Aberbeeg bridge at an estimated cost of £22,500, of which sum the Ministry of Transport will contribute 50 per cent.

Another South Wales scheme of importance is that to widen Carmarthen Town Bridge. This etructure, one of the oldest in Wales, has been con-dem ned . as unsatisfactory and unsafe, and it is proposed to carry out reconstruction work at a cost of £35,400.

The Latest F.W.D. Railcar,

We reproduce on this page an illustration which affords a comparison between the ordinary F.W.D. shunting locomotive and a similar vehicle which has been built specially low to meet a customer's requirements, and in order

to allow it to pass under low bridges in a yard. The standard locomotive was fully described in our issue for October 23rd last, but it may be worth while dealing very briefly with the outstanding features of the later model.

The locomotive is built out of standard F.W.D. parts, so far as the engine, gearbox, drive shaft, etc., are concerned, with the exception of the reverse gearbox, the use of which gives four speeds of equal ratio in either direction. The components are mounted on a heavy steel girder frame in order to withstand the strain of buffers as well as draw. hooks, The height of the special model from the surface of the rail to the top of the cabis 7 ft. 8 ins, Users of these vehicles speak in glowing terms of their merits, and a recent letter received from Messrs. C. and F. Gaen, asphalt contractors, of Port Talbot, speaks highly of the performance of one of these locomotives.

Town and Village Name Signs.

The Royal Automobile Club, which has recently been in communication with the Ministry of Transport on the subject of the erection of town and village name signs, has received an intimation that the Minister of Transport is prepared, under the classification scheme, to accept as grant earning the expenditure incurred by local authorities in erecting approved town and village name signs. It is added that the Minis. ter appreciates the importance of displaying such signs, particularly in cases where the name of the town or village is not likely to be known to users of the roads. .

Institute of Metals Journal.

We have just received a copy of the 30th volume of the journal of the Institute of Metals. The voluthes have eon." tinued .to grow in size since the first issue was published, when only 300 pages and a few papers by British authors were dealt with. The latest volume includes 800 pages, and contains triple the number of papers published in earlier editions.

The difficult subject of "The Inner Structure of Alloys," dealt with in a clear and concise manner by Dr. W.

Rosenhain, F.T.I.S., in his May lecture, is now published in .full for the first time. Other subjects include the behaviour of metals under Compressive stresses, hardness, age-hardening of aluminium alloys, electro chemical character of corrosion, etc. These and Glasgow and .Engineering Lectures. The Institution of Automobile Engineers in Glasgow is looking well ahead so

far as its lectureship is concerned,. It is at present inviting applications for next winter's course, to consist of 25 weekly discussions of an. advanced character, to be delivered at the Royal Technical College. These lectures are always well attended, and are among the most popular given in the city.

An Up-to-Date Garage.

Glasgow is well provided with excellent garages, but one of the finest and most up to date has just been opened. It is situated in Maryhill Road, and is under the supervision of the Scottish Automobile Co., Ltd. Six first-class car washers have been installed, and every facility for quick and efficient service is provided. Needless to say, the garage is to be open day and night.

Goods on Trolley-buses.

At a yueeting of the Oldham Corporation tramways committee the town clerk reported that, in company with the tramways manager, he interviewed the town clerk of Ashton-under-Lyne with reference to the opposition of the rail way companies to the corporation having the power to carry goods on the trolley vehicles proposed to he run between Oldham and Ashton, a power the corporation already possesses with regard to tramways. The town clerk of Ashton concurred with the view that the powers applicable • to the tramways should also apply to the trolley-vehicle service and that every effort should be made to secure such power in the Bill now being promoted by the Ashton Corporation.

Service Premises Required.

We. know of a prominent commercial. vehicle manufacturing company wit') require modern premises which are suitable for equipping as a service station, and which possess a floor space to the extent of 20,000-30,000 sq. ft.., . The space should be all on one floor and would be required mostly for work in connection with commercial vehicles. The premises are required in or near London. Letters marked "L.," care of the Editor, will be forwarded."

The Ra*tenstall Bus Bill.

At a meeting of the Burnley Corporation the town clerk reported that, as instructed, the sub-committee of the council had met representatives of the Rawtenstall Council, and had agreed to withdraw .opposition to the clauses in the Rawtenstall Corporation Bill, seeking power to run motor omnibuses in the Borough of Burnley, if a clause for the protection of the Burnley Corporation were inserted in the Bill.

Production Engineers' Progress.

At a recent meeting of the council of the Institution of Production Engineers the following members were co-opted as council members :—Mr. H. A. Dudgeon, Mr. H. S. Locker, Mr. Raymond Mitchell (Ransoms Bearing Co., Ltd.), Mr. R. H, Hutchinson (D. Napier and Son, Ltd.), Mr. Zieshang (Pyrene Co.) and Mr. A. T. Davey.

In order to accelerate the already satisfactory progress of the Institution, the following members of the council were appointed to form a development

sub-commit-tee :—Messrs. W. II.. Dormer, W. Attwood, G. Iley, A. Butler and A. T. Davey.

The Institution has decided to award a bronze medal and the sum of £10 10s. to the member of any grade who, in the opinion of the council, presents the best paper before the Institution each session. Similarly, a bronze medal and the sum of £5 5s. will be awarded to the member who makes the best contribution to theediscussion, either verbal or written, in connection with these papers.

Rubber Manufacturers and the . Reparations Duty. .

At a meeting of the British Rubber Tyre • Manufacturers' Association, Ltd., the following resolution was passed by the genera committed :— "That, in view of the severe unemployment already existing in the tyre trade by the imports of German covers and tubes at low prices, this Association protests against the reduction in the reparations duty, which will further accentuate this competition and cause still greater unemploymeat. amongst British workers.

"As an example of the competition experienced ; it is pointed out that Cerman cycle tobes,are now being imported -at-3td:each complete, as E24 against the prime cost of materials and labour in British factories at 10*1. each."

A copy of the resolution has been sent to the President of the Board of Trade.

The S.M.M. and T. Power-farming Demonstration.

The power-farming demonstration which is' being organized this year by the Society of -Motor Manufacturers and Traders, and which will take the place of the former tractor trials, is to be held during the week ending September 8th on the farm belonging to Mr. J. E. Philp, known as Heathrow Hall Farm, in the parish of Harmondsworth, just beyond Hounslow, on the Bath Road. We understand that the regulations covering the demonstration have already been drafted, and will shortly be circulated.

Do You Want Agents ?

We are acquainted with a gentleman who is touring the whole of the British Isles calling upon motor agents, and who is open to undertake the appoint ment of agents for the sale of a make of commercial vehicle. If any manufacturer is looking for such a representative And will send letters addressed to "Lorry Agency," c.o. this journal, we will see that they are forwarded to the proper quarter.

The Danger of Competitive Services. The police at Pontardawe (Glam.) have asked the local council to take steps to secure better control and supervision of bus traffic. They allege that competitive systems are so keenly run that the public do not get the advantages they should from the number of buses in regular use. In addition, danger to the public is occasioned.

The council is to put in force a number of local regulations with a view to improving the services.

Power-transmitting Machinery.

A catalogue of much value to consulting engineers, draughtsmen, works and mill managers, engineers, etc., is that which has just been published by • Crofts (Engineers), Ltd., of Thornbuay, -Bradford. It contains much useful data and information, and will undoubtedly be of great service to those engaged in the laying-nut or supervision of power transmission installations.

Local Proceedings.

Gillingham Town Council has decided to purchase a motor ambulance. Doncaster Corporation proposes the purchase of three additional motorbuses.

Batley Tciwn Council has decided to purchase a motor fire-escape and a motor fire-engine, Burnley Watch Committee has decided to purchase a motor ambulance ata cost of about £800.

Sowerby Bridge Urban District Council is considering the provision of a motor ambulance.

The A/bergavenny (Mon.) Town Council has purchased a 10-ton steam roller Aveling and Porter, Ltd.

Folkestone Corporation Parks Committee has decided to purchase a motor mowing machine at a cost of £300.

Wakefield City Council has asked a sub-committee to go into the question of the purchase Of a motor fire-engine.

Blackburn Watch Committee has authorized the purchase of a motor ambulance at a cost of about £1,000.

Wakefield City Council has asked a committee to report as to the purchase or hiring of motorcars for general use.

Burnley Corporation Cleansing Committee recommends the purchase of a motor sweeping machine at a cost. of £580.

Southport Corporation is hiring a 26seater bus at a cost of £12 10s. per week, which includes the services of two drivers.

Burton-on-Trent Corporation has decided to purchase two motor vehicles for the health department at a total cost of about £500.

Lewisham Borough Council's Works Committee recommends the purchase of another low-loading petrol vehicle at a cost of £585.

Glasgow Corporation Health Committee has authorized the purchase of a Motor lorry, at a cost of £176, for use at the hospitals. The Abergavenny (Mon.) Rural District Council has framed a by-law prohibiting the use of Bailey Park by vehicular traffic.

Ossett Town Council has now decided . to adopt motor haulage and has appointed a sub-committee to inspect and purchase vehicles.

The surveyor of the Darlington Rural District Council has been instructed to purchase a second-hand motor lorry at. a cost, not exceeding. £300. .

Leeds City Council is applying to the Ministry of Transport for sanction to a loan of £17,350 for the purchase of motorbuses, Tailless cars, etc.

Eastbourne Watch Committee has granted an application from Mr. John Davis, Hailsham, for permission to run a motor coach between Hailsham and Eastbourne for the convenience of theatre-going people, subject, to the vehicle passing certain tests imposed by the licensing authorities.

The Euk Starter.

In the advertisement of S. Smith and Sons (M.A.), Ltd., which appeared in our issues for February 26th and March 11th, the price of the Smith Euk easy starter was given as 10s. 61 This figure ia incorrect, the actual retail' price, of the starter being 17s. 6d., as shown in previous and subsequent advertisements of the company.

Oxford Bus Services.

Asked by the local Labour Party to municipalize the buses now controlled by the City of Oxford Motor, Services, Ltd., the Oxford Corporation Parliamentary Committee reports that the undertaking could not be' acquired without the coinpany's assent before 1951, and it is doubtful if the corporation could obtain the necessary Parliamentary powers.

South Africa Taking to Steam Wagons.

Both steam wagons and tractors are gaining in popularity in South Africa,. Indeed, it is declared that, Where it is necessary to use vehicles of more than 5-tons capacity, steam propulsion is best suited to local conditions, For instance, a Super-Sentinel 10-ton steam wagon recently covered the 400 miles between Durban and Johannesburg at an average speed of 12 m.p.h.

For lighter work the petrol lorry is maintaining its position. Buses continue to grow in favour, those most frecruently seen in use being Boos, Whites, Republics, Leylands, Thornycrofts, Guys and Clydesdales.

American Tractor Exports.

Canada was the largest purchaser of Americaa tractors last year with 32 of the garden type, 5,923 of the wheeled type and 62 track-laying machines. Australia took 2,582 wheeled and 259 track-laying tractors, and Argentina 58 garden tractors, 2,087 wheeled tractors and 19 track-laying tractors from the United States during the same period. Other large absorbers of American tractors were the United Kingdom, 1,489; France, 1,326 • Denmark, 1,222; Belgium, 843; an-Cuba, 409.


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