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28th October 1919
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Page 4, 28th October 1919 — WHEELS OF INDUSTRY.
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Which of the following most accurately describes the problem?

Agricultural 'TraCtOr a Motorcar ?

An interesting case was decided before the Reading Borough Magistrates a few days ago. In Aupet last, a Tita.n agriCultural tractor was being driven for testing purposes by. a motor mechanic. The mechanie was summoned for driving

• a motorcar on the highway without it having been registered under the Motor Car Act, 1903.

Mr. E. D, Berry, a Reading solicitor, acting on behalf of the defendant, •eu.bemitted as a paint of law that the tractor was not a motorcar within the definition of the Act, inasmuch as the Locomotives Act, 1898, requiring heavy locomotives to be licensed by the County Council, did not apply to any agricultural loccmotive, and that the tractor in question as such had to be registered in the county in which it was ordinarily used.

It was further argued that if the latter Act applied it meant that no agricultural locomotive came within the provisions of the Highway Act, 1898, unless the weight exceeded five tons.

The Bench, over-ruled the point of law and held that the tractor was a motorcar within the Act, 1903, and, therefore, shbuld have been registered, as, at the

i time n question, it was not being employed for agricultural purposes.

• The defendant therefore pleaded guilty to the offence and was fined £3.

The effect of the decision would appear to be that agricultural tractors ender 5 tons in weight which are taken qn the highway for testing purposes must be registered under the Motor Car Act, 1903, and.have.either trade or ordinary number plates affixed.

Beardmore Taxicabs.

The current issue of " The Beardmore News," the 'works . journal of William Beardmore and Co., Ltd., contains amongst much other matter some details regarding the design of the new taxicab' wind' the company are mantifacturing :for' use on 'the streetic London.

The manufacture of -thetaxicab-.

chassis Wee' 'decided win' inAugust,' 1915, and the fact that everppart. em bodied in its construction is made" in the company's works ensures production in large quantities. and the' maximum standard of efficiency. The engine is a. four-cylindered unit of the vertical type with a bore and stroke of 80 mm: by 120 mm. respectively, de veloping 22 h.p. at 1,200 r.p.m. The cylinder heads are detachable, and the crankshaft is machined from special aero steel. Forced lubrication is. employed, and the pump is placed in the bottom half of the crankcase. Petrol is gravity fed, the tank being fitted on the offside of the driver's seat and having a capacity

of 4 gallons, For cooling purposes a water pump of the centrifugal type. is bolted direct to the water jackets. A leather-to-metal cone-type clutch' used: The gearboxtef, 'wee ides four forward speeds and one reverse speed, direct drive being on the fourth speed. Internally expanding hand brakes acting on steel drums fitted to the rear wheel hubs are employed.' The foot brake is on the


• main driving shaft behind the gearbox. Steering is by worm end sector. The springing has received special attention. The front springs' are half-elliptic anel the rear ones three-quarter elliptic.

The engine and gearbox are supported on a sub-frame construeted at an angle to obtain a straight-line drive from engine to rear axle.

Wheels am of the artillery type, the tyres fitted on them being 815 mm. by 105 mm.

The body is a three-quarter landaulet, accommodating three passengers facing and two sitting back to the driver. The cab is painted in a standard colour of dark coach green. The advertised price of the vehicle complete is £650.

The Benevolent Fund.

The Cycle and Motor-Trade Benevolent Fund is doing such extraordinary good work that we should like to see the heavy vehicle section of the motor industry more fully its annual banquets and in the subscription lists. And not only the concerns themselves hut their employees, so that the spirit of mutual help and -comradeship may be fostered and that the impression shall be created and developed amongst the workers in a firm that the principals or directors are themselves interested in the welfare and future well-being of their employees. Founded by Mr. A. J. Wilson eleven years ago the Fund has relieved many hundreds of difficult cases and kept the records of the two trades, in the main, free from tales of neglect and distress. It makes full use of its funds, and now has £40,000 available. Over .£5,000 of this was eirbserileed at the banquet in London on Thursday last, when Mr. Wilson the "Peace President" occupied the chair, and had the' pleasure of announcing record figures. The gathering was a. brilliant index of the two industries, but we feel that the -heavy Vehicle side should make a clisqnct effort for 1920, so that it May satisfy ;itself that it is as well represented. as the:two lighter sides of road locomotion.

Sir Eric Geddes is to be the chief _ speaker at the, banquet of the Society of Ifid.or Manufacturers and Traders.

Captain Hella.well, late of the Aldershot and District Traction Co., has recently taken up his dutie.e as export manager for Dennis Bros., Ltd.

We ate asked to announce that Mr. Warren has been appointed -manager Of the Briatel solid tyre depot of the Shrewsbury' S.T. and Challiner Tyre Co., Lted., and Chas. Macintosh and Co. Ltd., at 9, Colston Avenue; and Mr: Bryant as the above companies' representative for solid tyres in the counties of Devon and Cornwall.

. Mr. C. C. Harris' the managing director of Harris and Elwell, Ltd., of 141, Victoria Street, Bristol, who during the railway strike, was commandant' of the local clearing house from which foodstuffs were distributed to Bristol and district, gave a dinner one evening last week to the heads and staffs of. the departments under his command as a token of appreciation for their splendid services.

L.G.O. Lifeguard': Alleged Infringement.

The hearing was concluded in the Court of Appeal last week of the case of Bonnard and others v. the London General Omnibus Co., Ltd., upon the appeal of the plaintiffs from a jedgment of Justice Sargent dismissing an action brought by the plaintiffs for alleged infringement of a device invented by.thern and patented, being a eideguard to prevent people falling beneath the .rear wheels ot motorbuses. The defence pig in. was a denial of the infringetnent and an objection to the patent on the ground of want of novelty, want of subject matter, and want of utility.

In dismissing the action, Mr: Justice Sargent held that the only invention, consisted in placing a guard to protect the rear wheels of motor omnibuses, and that presented no constructional difficulty. He decided reluctantly against the plaintiffs, beemese he had an tmeentfortable feelleg" that after having suggestions from the workmen. and the public and having received in Consequence a model from the plaintiff, Mr. Hawkesworth, practically identical with the device they had now universally adopted, they had availed themselves of his suggestion without making him any suitable recognition_ At the conclusion of the argument of counsel their Lordships unanimously allowed the appeal, and ordered an 4iquiry as to damages. It was agreed that the injunction restraining the defendants from using the device should be suspended fox two months, and that if the defendants appealed to the House of Lords the injunction should be suspended during the hearing of the appeal. It was, however, decided that the inquiry as to damages should proceed notwithstanding an appeal.

London Traffic..

The report of the Select Committee on London Traffic has been considered by the Ca,binet, and it hits been decided that all questions relating 'to traffic in the London. area Will be dealt with by the Ministry of Transpent. Are advisory committee pneelY.on the lines of the ITcommendatione, of the Select .committee will he appointed to assistthe Ministry.

Bus Licences and Increased Fares.

The question whether the Farnborough 1J.D.C. -when licensing omnibuses, had any right to take into consideration the fares to be charged was decided last week by the King's Bench Divisional Court. The Aldershot' and District Traction Co. having increased the fare on a certain stage from 2d. "to 3d. for the general public and reduced it for aircraft workers, the council decided that it' was right ins earning to the conclusion that it was not in the interests of the'clistrict, but, on the other hand, -the defence of the company was that the council had no power to take into consideration -the question of fares when granting. licences. The mutt unanimously agreed on this point, and decided in favour of the omnibus .company.

Overhanging Trees and Passenger Traffic.

The Ministry of Transport (Roads Department)has recently addressed a letter to the county councils and municipal authorities throughout the country, in which it is stated that numerous .complaints are being received by the Ministry from omnibus and char-a-bancs proprietors calling attention to the serious danger to passengers using these vehicles due to the overhanging branches of trees, and pointing out that the danger is most pronounced when the vehiele.sliaiie -to draw in to the aide of the road on meeting or passing other traffic.

The Minister, states the letter, appreciates that during the war it has not been possible for the same close attenlion to be given to the cutting of trees and hedges as formerly, but the hope is expressed that advantage will be taken of the present season to see that all obstructions are removed and that trees and hedges are lopped as provided for by statute..

I.A.E. President's, Address.

The first meeting of the Institution of Automobile Engineers was held on October 22nd at the Royal Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, W.C. The holding of this meeting had been delayed owing

to the railway strike. .

An interesting presidental ziAddress was given by Mr. Thomas Clarkson, M. L C . E., the subject being " The Possibilities of Further Economies in Road Trans.port." Mr. Clarkson gave a very full schedule of headings under which working expenses came, hut did not go into many details. Be mentioned that direct wages amount to approximately 40 per cent, of the total expenses. He emphasized the adoption of berizole-alcoliol mixtnres as an improved source of cheap fuel supply.

At present the s-upply of alcohol suitable for use as a fuel in internal-combustion engines is limited, but large quantities could easily be produced. He also dealt with the necessity of eliminating all non-essentials in design. as regards materials and particular parts. Some amusement was caused by the way in which he brought this matter forward. He said: " It is useful to remember that the part which is not there can never be misused, never gives trouble, costs nothing for maintenance, saves weight and leaves more space for getting at things which are essential."

No Royalty on British Oil. .

Mr. &mar Law stated in the House of Commons last week that the Government has decided that no royalty is to be payable on oil discovered in the United Kingdom.

Worm Gear Tests.

David Brown and Sons (Huddersfield), Ltd., inform us that they have recently had their worm gear tested by the National Physical Laboratory, when a series of most striking efficiencies were obtained, beating all previous official World's records at all loads end speeds. Full details will be available at an early date. .

• How to Increase Home • .Fuel Supplies.

U is urged by the Motor Legislation Committee that -amendments should be made to the Electricity.S-u.pply Bill, now before Parliament, with the object of increasing the production of home motor spirit and other valuable by-products.

In 1914, some 24000,000 gallons of benzale were produced in Great Britain, principally from coke-oven works. The pressure of war requirements increased this figure to 32,000,000 gallons in 1917. Another 10,000,000 gallons were recovered • from Oa-producing plant. This figure it is computed represents barely 15 per cent, of the probable requirements of the motor industry in the immediate future. A ton of coal carbonized either by high or lowtenaperature process in coke-ovens, gas retorts, or other suitable receptacles will produce (a) 12,500 cubic ft of gas. •

(b) 2 gallons of -benzole. (e) 10 cwt. coke:

(d) 30 lb. ammonium sulphate.

(e) 100 lb. tar, from which can be extracted the heavier oils and innumerable by-products of commercial value. • In the opinion of the Motor Legislation Committee, the electrical industry, properly developed, can materially assist towards self-dependence for a very large proportion of the motor spirit requirements of the -country. New super-power stations should include the plant necessary for the production of liquid fuel and other coal by-products.

Notts. Roads.

The County Surveyor • of Nottinghamshire, in his annual report for the past year on the maintenance and improvement of the main roads artlbridges of the county, states that the gross expenditure for the year was 269,443,. and the net expenditure £49,098, as against an. estimated amount of 253,751, the finderexpenditure being accounted for largely by the fact that the control Of road stone was continued, during the year and the required amount .was difficult to secure. Dering the year 121 miles of niain roads were surface-tarred, and the Road Board made a grant a £2,000 towards the eost of the work, which was carried out at a cost of 2.26d. per super yard. The surface tarring carried out has been most valuable, and it is largely owing to this work that the present satisfactory condi. tion of the main roads througliont the county is attributable.

Bates Extension. .

As a result of the continued popularity of Bates "super rubber tyres and other her goods, the well-known manufdielh-ers, W. and A. Bates, Ltd., of St. Mary's Mills, Leicester, have opened a depot in Manchester for the wholesale distribution of all their goods in Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire and North Wales.

The administration will be in the hands of Mr. Charles A. Lee, who has had an extensive works and sales .gxperience at St. Mary's Mills, Leicester, assisted by Mr. J. H. Gill, representative for Lancashire. Cheshire and North Wales, and by Mr. •F. E. Howard, for Yorkshire. All traders desiring supplies (xiin

within the territory outlined should communicate with the company, St. Mary's Buildings, Quay Street,. Deansgate, Manchester.

Investments Account Book.

The publishers of The Finometial T biles have just issued a book called an. " Investments Account Book," which will be very useful to inventors. This book has been specially produced to meet the requirements of all those who have money invested in stocks and shares. The book will, it is believed, to use a hackneyed phrase, supply a long-felt want. It provides in a pimple and accurate farm all facilities for a record to be kept oi , the cost: when interest or dividends are due, when paid, rate_, and-7 au important thing at the present time—the amount and rate in £ of iiome-tax. deductions.

Tables are also given showing the yield on 21 ehares bought at ith to 22 and 4 per cent. to 15 per cent. dividends, yield of 2100 stock bought at 225 to 2200 and at 4 per cent. to 8 per cent. dividend. The book contains 120 pages of a handy size, and the price is TAB. 6d. net.

L.C.C. Buses.

At a meeting last week of the L.c:c.; the resolution moved by Mr. W. J. Squires, chairman of Abe highways committee, for application to be made in Parliament to enable the .Council to own omnibuses for the purpose of linking up tramway dead ends and providing auxiliary services was passed unanimously. The resolution, on a show of hands, was supported by 103 members; none voted against it. The approval of the Ministry of Health is required before it can be carried into effect.

Inst. A.E. Meeting.

The second meeting of the session of the Institution of Automobile Engineers will be held at the Royal Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, W.C. , on Wednesday November 5th, at 8 p.m., when Dr. L. Aitchison will read a paper entitled 7-" Valve Failures and Valve Steels in Internal-combustion Engines."

A card of invitation to the meeting may be obtained on application to the Secretary, Institution of Automobile Engineers, 28, Victoria Street, S.W. 1.

Metallic Packhlgs.

The business of the Lead Wool Co., Ltd., of Snociland, Kent, is being transferred to a new company, to be called the Lead Wool Co. (1919), Ltd. This change is being made owing to large increase in business and to provide additional capital in connection with the extension of trade in the home and foreign markets.

There is no change in the management of the company. The directors, manager, and all officials remain as before, and all accounts will be discharged in the usual was-, although it is necessary to publish official notice of the liquidation of the company.

Lincoln's Needs.

Around the City of Lincoln there are a 'number of villages' of geed size -which are a considerable distance from any railway station, and there is a real and crying need for a local omnibus service to link them together and to connect-them with the city. Distances from 15 to 20 miles west and north-east could be worked admirably, and theie is ample scope for such enterprise. .

It appears that early in the year Mr. R. M. Wright,. of R. M. 'Wright and Co., Ltd., of Lincoln, made the suggestion to the Lincoln Corporation that per.mission should be given for the establishment of a bus service in the city, and extending therefrom, but whilst thanking the originators of the idea for the information received, the corporation announced that it had decided against allowing private enterprise in such a scheme as municipal matters should, in its opinion, be conducted by municipalities. Nothing appears to hayobeen done or even to be contemplated.

Petrol-electric Road Train.

The accompanying illustrations show a very interesting petrol-electric road train -which was to be seen outside the Grand Palais during the recently-held Paris motor show.

In our first article on the Show, which lappeared in our issue dated October 14th, we described several petrol-electric vehicles designed, by the concern of Henry Crachat. One was a petrol-electric locomotive for use on railways, and&the other was a petrol-electric lorry fitted with an electrically-nperated travelling crane for dealing with barrels or similar

What might be described as the locomotive of the new road train is a. vehicle very similar to the one 'we described previously. The ordinary engine is situated under the driver's seat, and drives through a flexible connection to the dynamo. The ctirrent is conveyed in two motors, between each of which and the differential . is a doubleered uction 'by spur gearing. The final drive to the rear wheels_ is by roller. chain. Each of the ts.....ilers is provided with its own -driving . motors 'and -.steering gear, but

with no engine..s The current for driving the motors on thestrailer is supplied by a separate high-powered engine and dynamo situated within the -body of the first vehicle. In our iltuetration.s the tops of the cylinders can be seen just about . the sides of the body. We hope to be able to give hther details shortly of this interesting road train.

Indian Tractor Trials.

The director of Agriculture at Nagpur, CP.,India informs us that a competitive trial of motor tractors and selfcontained motor ploughs will be carried out on the Nagptir Farm, C.P. India, in the beginning of January, 192d, at tale time of the meeting of the Science Congress. Medals and prizes of 2,000 rupees will be given to successful competitors, implements being judged upon thei.. construction', the quality and quantity of work done, and their suitability for Indian commerce. 'Hyland and Co., motor engineers, Nagpur, will supply spares, and accept any. necessary repairs by exhibitors..

Trams and Motor Services at Nottingham.

Contemporaneously with schemes which are designed to effect a wide extension of municipal boundaries, the Nottingham Corporation has decided upon a considerable elaboration of the existing tramway system, by continuing the lines to Beeston on the Derby side of the City and as far an the other as Hucknall Torkard, one of the oldest centres of coal-mining activity in this part of the Midlands.

The arrangement to meet the need of transport to the outlying district must, necessarily establish anothei strong factor in support of the case for a wider government area, but much difference of opinion is finding expression locally as to whether the policy is entirely sound which excludes all consideration of mon.or means of passenger traffic to the dominant maintenance of electrically-propelled tramcars, which present no possibility of variation in regard to the routes to be served.

In the neighbouring suburb of West Bridgford—the area south of the Trent from which the main opposition to annexation will spring—the profitable and convenient working of motorbuses has long since been demonstrated, but the lesson which is presented close to its

doors is being ignored by the Nottingham Corporation, which%decided at . its last meeting in favour of the extension Of the present tram routes.

In the light of the official figures, which have just been forthcoming as Ito the revenue-earning power of the system, it would appear that an incontestabl4 case has been made out in favour of a development of the present routes, the Nottingham 'tramways having yielded a profit of £192.144 in the five years end7 ing March last, but it must be remembered that that has been affected to the exclusion of all competing traffic, save such as is permitted in regard to a restricted number of taxis which . are allowed to ply for hire.

Proceeding on main routes, the projected extension will still leave uncatered for a large proportion of people resident in the districts, and it is urged that this deficiency can only be made goad by the introduction of a, well co-ordinated tern of motorbuses possessing elasticity as to choice of routes and rendering it possible to meet efficiently widely direr Bilied needs.

Mr. A. R. Aitkey, ALP., who brings to bear upon his participation in local affairs a wide technical knowledge, urged at the last meeting of the council that the authorities ought not to lay another line of tramline, but the assurance was forthcoming from the chairman of the committee that the passing of the resolution would not bind them to the adoption of any other than the immediate schemes under consideration.

The Town Clerk afforded the explanation that all that was needed regarding the Beeston part of the project was power to vary the route and, as to motorbuses, declared that it would riot -be possible to run them until Parliamentary, powers have been obtained. If that be a correct estimate of the legal position, the opinion is growing .„in Nottingham that such powers ought to be obtained without undue delay. .

Local Proceedings.

Brecon R.D.C. has decided to purchase a motor lorry.

Nelson T.C. is calling for tenders for a motor fire engine.

Norwich U.D.C. is to purchasa a petrol wagon at a cost of £1,061.

Melton Mowbray R.D.C. has decided to purchase a motor lorry.

Settle (Yerks,) R.D.C. la:inquiring as to the cost of a motor fire engine.

Wigan Corporation is purchasing three tipping wagons at a. cost of £3,500.

Gelligaer U.D.C. and •Barnsley T.C. are taking steps to provide motor ambulances.

Wrexham R.D.C. seeks sanction for a loan of £320 for the purchase of a motor ambulance.

Boughton-le-Spring (Durham) U.D.C. is obtaining prices of motor vehicles for removing refuse. .

South Shields Corporation has asked the borough engineer to make inquiries as to electric vehicles.

Newport (Salop) U.D.C. is asking the Marsh trustees to defray the CuEt Of an

up-to-date fire escape.

Bristol T.C. is -seeking sanction for a loan of £6,600 for the purchase of six motor tipping wagons.

Lincoln C.C. Highways Committee has decided to purchase two motor vehicles for the removal of refuse.

Snwerbv Bridge TJ.D.C. is contem-plating die purchase of a fire engine at an approximate coat of 21,100.

Sheffield. Corporation has under consideration the expenditure of £50,000 for electric vans for dust collection.

Bolton Cowporation has asked the engineer to go into the matter of a motor lorry for the electricity department.

Hackney B.C. has accepted the tender of Ransomes, Sims and Jeffeiles, Ltd., for two 2-ton vehicles at £1,195 and two 3i-ton vehicles at £1,364.

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