WHEELS OF INDUSTRY.
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The wheel of wealth will be slowed by all difficulties of transport at whatever points (wising, as a carriage is by the roughness of the roads over which ii runs."—John Beattie Crozier.
Development in Transport.
Sir Henry Maybury, the recently elected president of the Institute of Transport, took " Development " as the subject of his presidential address read on Monday, Gatober 17th.
He dealt, in the main, with roads, as would naturally be expected from a man who has made the highway a life-long study. He showed that we are becoming not so much an urban as a suburban race, and that the clearance of the centres of the towns is resulting in the expansion of their circumference. The modern movement towards shorter hours and more generous holidays is bound to stimulate all forms of pleasure traffic, and it-is significant that the highest increases of population recorded in this year's census were at two great pleasure towns, viz., Blackpool and Southend.on-Sea.
He dealt very thoroughly with the question of traffic in many large C011gisst-ed MOW, showing that the density of traffic on roads is rapidly reaching such a pitch thetAhere will soon be no space for any form of control ether than the airship patrol that made its appearance last Derby day. An.improvernent can only be brought about by vigorous and concerted, action on the part of the various authorities concerned. These authorities, however, are fully alive to the magnitude and urgency of the problem.
He dealt with the schemes of the Government for absorbing unskilled labour in the construction of new roads of an arterial character, and showed that funds were made available for such work not only in London but in the provinces. He dealt with the more conspicuous schemes in Greater London now in progress, and also showed that the great provincial towns have not been backward in availing themselves of the opportunities affonded by the Government offer of assistance.
With regard to new roads, he said that it is riot only in its width that the modern highway must differ from those we have inherited from the past. We can no longer slavishly follow the fortuitous undulations of the ground and the jagged boundaries of property and parish. Directness of line, smoothness of gradient and uniformity of construction are prime considerations, the easiest curves and the amplest straight lines being studiously sought.
Competition for Coach Drivers.
The entries for the drivers' coach competition have now been carefully examined and classified and the winners of the prizes have been chosen. In the pressure of the show work, however, it has not been possible to check every award, and we intend to make our announcement of the names and addresses of the winners and to reproduce the winning letter, together with our comments upon the whole of the competition, in next week's issue.
Mr. Frost Smith on Evolution.
The paper read by Mr. Percy Frost Smith, M.I.M.E., M.Inst.T., on the evolution of the motor voiricic for goods and Passenger service Was taken at a congress inaugurated by the Institute. of Transport in connection with the Commercial Vehicle Exhibition, and was extremely interesting.
It very largely covered the early history of the commercial vehicle, Mr. Frost Smith being able in show that the first use of the motor vehicle for profitearning purposes was in connection with passenger conveyance,.
Mr. Frost Smith wont on to deal with the technical side Of the movement, touching on design, and, not unnaturally, dealt rather exhaustively with the genesis and history of the Fetrol-electric vehicle. He believes that we are only in our infancy in the evolution and development of this type of vehicle, and that, in the absence of a force not yet known or of a force not yet harnessed, in a few years from now the petrolelectric transmission will occupy the position which the gear drive holds to-day. He said that is the end for which he personally is working.
Testing the S Type Bus.
With the laudable object of demonstrating the ability of the S type bus to complete a journey by road of 1,000 miles without, if possible, the engine stopping, the Associated Equipment Co., LW., entered an A.E.C., S type, single-deck omnibus for test by the Royal Automobile Club over the distance stated.
This test was carried out from October 4th to 8th bot.h. days inclusive), 'but, at the first attempt, it was found at the end of 561 miles that the engine stopped through the carburetter jet becommg choked, as the fuel tank contained a large quantity of foreign matter. The trial was, therefore, •abandoned, and the vehicle returned to its depot for cleans ing of the fuel receptacle. It is very likely that the trouble, was not entirely cured.
The trial was re-started over the following route : from the. North Road depot of the company in Caledonian Road, via Barnet and &Mock to Biggleswade and back. The weather was fine and the roads were good throughout the trial.
The vehicle was run at an average speed (running time only) of 11.9 miles per hour, and it ran night and day, with changes. of drivers and observers, for the four days. The total distance covered was exactly 1,000 miles, and the engine stopped on two occasions, viz., , at the completion of 300 miles and at the completion of 625 miles; the former entailed a stop of two minutes and was found to be due to a choked jet, whilst. the latter entailed a stop of 12 minutes, shortage of fuel again being the case. Five other momentary stops were made on account of the engine missing fire, and on one-occasion the carburetter drain . plug was removed, whilst during a portion of the third day's run Sticking of the carburetter needle had to be overcome by tapping the carburetter. In the process of building a Motor vehicle, the Ingress of upholsterer's material into the petrol tank is a very common occurrence. Other than this small defect, which only entailed in the whole 1,000 miles a total delay of 20; minutes, the vehicle ran quite satisfactorily. Its fuel consumption was 1 gallon per 9.23 miles, equivalent. to 58.92 ton-miles per gallon. The oil consumption was 1 gallon per 47117 miles. No water was added during the trial, the total amount replaced in the radiator at the conclusion of the trial being 4 pts. 2 ozs.
Restrictions on Heavy Motors.
The Commercial Motor Users Association is taking steps to oppose the application by the Southport Town Gunnell for an order to restrict the speed of heavy motorcars over certain roads in the borough to eight m.p.h. The Ministry of Transport inquiry is due to take place to-day (October 25th). Most motor drivers dislike the passage through Warrington. via that narrow thoroughfare known as Sankey Street, for which the Warrington Corporation is seeking a prohibition order to prevent heavy motor vehicles being driven along a portion of this street.
The L.S.D. Delivery Van.
Although not actually shown at Olympia, the L.S.D. delivery van atfretted a good deal of attention outside the exhibition building. In company with the G.N., it probably represents the smallest commercial motorvan that is made, whilst its cheap first, cost and. economical running should commend it to the small trader who is looking out for a little trade vehicle which can be run on the cheapest possible lines.
The engine—placed at the front—can he either an 8 h.p. J.A.P. or a M.A.G., and in both cases is air-cooled. A leather-fated cone clutch transmits the drive to a two-speed gearbox incorporating a reverse, and the final drive to the single rear wheel is by chain. .A1.1 the wheels are interchangeable, and the rear wheel can be removed merely by unscrewing on-e nut from each end of the rear spindle and undoing the connections which hold the band brake.
The L.S.D. van was seen at last year's show, but it has been considerably improved, a useful addition being a hickstarter fitted to the side. The van body itself is made of oak, covered with three-ply board, whilst the doors at the rear are double-opening. The principal e,fmensions of the van interior are Height., 3 ft. 4 ins;; width, 3 ft. ; length, 4 ft. The load capacity is 4 cwt., exclusive of ttiver. The machine is made by Sykesvancl Sugden, Ltd. Linthwaite, Huddersfield.
Roller Building in Ceylon.'
Road-building is proceeding apace in Ceylon and it has created an urgent de3nand for steam-rollers. As orders played in this country have only been executed very slowly, it 'was decided to huild a ten-ton roller by way of experiment in a Government factory at Colombo, where ordinarily steam-roller repairing and rebuilding are done. This machine, it is stated, has cost much less to build than a similar imported ma chine, and it is expected to do work equally as good. If anticipations are realized, special plant may be laid down to deal with the growing demand.
Char-a-bancs Booking Offices.
The Bolton and District Char-babancs Owners Association has applied for permission to erect a building of a movable character in the centre of the island pavement in Victoria Square for use as a booking office for char--banes tours. The Bolton Streets Committee, however, has refused to grant the application.
We regret to learn of the death in Berlin, alter an operation, of Mr. W. E. Mandelick, of 15, Hanover Square, London, formerly secretary and business manager of the London General Omni bus Co., Ltd. He retired from that post last year, being succeeded by Mr. J. C. Mitchell.
Roads Like Railways.
As tbe roads become more and more used for passenger and goods traffic, it seems almost inevitable that, in course of time, many of the features which characterise the railway track will become familiar on the highway The need for water-filling stations for steam vehicles is very badly felt, and no doubt in time we shall see tanks erected at various points similar to those from wil'eh locomotives take their water on the railways. Upon whom the expense of erection and maintenance should fall it is, however, rather difficult to decide. Most of the bus companies are now providing their terminal stations with waiting room and other accommodation similar to that obtainable at. railway stations. As traffic increases and' traffic control methods become standardized, we may even find some system approximating to the railway signalling system coming into vogue. That will be in the distant future. •
Motors in Bedford.
The Bedford Watch Committee has had under consideration the danger caused to vehicular and pedestrian traffic in the streets, the vibration caused to buildings, with consequent danger to the foundations theeeof, and the general inconvenience and annoyance by excessive noise arising from the speed at which mechanically propelled vehicles are driven in the town.
The committee is of opinion that such speeds should be regulated, and recommends the Council to consider the matter and 'to lay its views before the Minister of Transport and the Member of Parliament for the Bedford Division.
Southend Rail-less Scheme.
In regard to the proposal to install a small experimental rail-less system, with three vehicles, the Southend Corporation Tramways Committee has postponed decision until a meeting in January.
In our group of illustrations of certain motor omnibuses seen at the Commercial Motor Show, which appeared in 'last week's issne on page 322, No. 3 and No. 4 were -erroneously described as the Guy and Bristol respectively. No. 3 should have been the Bristol rearentrance 29-seater, and No. 4 the Guy rear-entrance 30-seatel.
• Bus Enterprise.
The United Automobile Services, Ltd., who operate a huge network of motorbus services over the county of Durham and elsewhere, have made a number of important announcements from their northern district office at Bishop Auckland, which will give pleasure to the large numbers of people for whom they cater. They have reduced all fares by 1d. or id., and cheap return tickets are being issued at very much reduced rates on most routes. A feature of these return tickets is that the return portion is available without limit as to the date. The company are also issuing season tickets at a very reasonable figure, whilst booklets of 12 journey tickets are being sold, at a further reduction of 10 per cent. on the latest scale of fares, and are transferable. Inaddition, children's tickets are issued at half rates.
The Second Man and a Licence.
A point rose at Bootle Police Court. a few days ago as to whether the brakeman, described by the defence as the " second man," ought to have a licence as well as the "first man," or driver on a steam-wagon. Each man had partial control of the vehicle and could act to SOrtle extent independently of the other, and the Chief Constable contended, therefore, that each man should hold licence. The Bench decided, on the facts before them, that the defendant summoned was not the driver, and dismissed the summons, which, the Chief Constable aid, had been taken out in the interests of public protection.
In Liverpool, at any rate, it is customary for the leading owners of steamwagons to take out lieences for both drivers and steersmen, so that they can interchange duties if desirable.
A Works Trip to the Show.
On Friday night, Oetober 14th, over 100 employees of the coach factory of United Automobile Services, Ltd:, at Lowestoft, left in four of the new United light buses for London. Loweatoft was left shortly after Ii p.m., and the vehicles arrived in London at approximately 6 a.m., taking about six running hours for 113 miles.
The men subsequently proceeded to the Commercial Vehicle Exhibition during the morning, and were free for other purposes subsequently .until the return journey, whiah was made on Sunday afternoon and evening. A fare of 12s. 6d. was charged by the company for the return journey, .which facilities were much appreciated by the staff who participated.
America Ready for Railroad Strike.
Mighty and complex as is America's railroad system, the railwaymen's strike, due to commence on the 30th of this month, will not leave the country helpless. For some time now the train has been giving ground to the lorry. Last year America's_ total rail-borne traffic was 2,504,000.000 tons, while the motor was responsible for the transport of 1,290,900,000 tons. During the first_ six months of this year the railways have only carried 780;000,000 tons. These figures, in a country of long hauls, are
very, . significant. Elaborate prepara,tions have been made to defeat the strike by utilizing to the full the country's mechanical transport facilities. In New York alone 57,000 lorries are available for the transport of the city's daily consumption of 1,500 trade loads of foodstuffs.
Smith's Stampings Report.
The annual report of Thomas Smith's Stamping Works, Ltd., to July 30th shawa a profit of £26,414, after making ample provision for depreciation on plant and machinery and all taxation liabilities. To this sum must be added an amount of £11,671 brought forward from 1920, making a total of £38,085. An interim dividend of is. per share (free of income tax) was paid, amounting to £12,500, leaving an available balance of £25,585, which is to be appropriated by the payment of a final dividend of is. per share (free of income tax), leaving £13,085 to be carried forward to next year's accounts.
Messrs. Hall and Hall, the manufacturers of high-pressure asbestos jointings, have triansferred their works from Limehonse, London, E., to Oldfield Works, Hampton, Middlesex, where, in new and.commoclious factory, installed with ulealio-date plant, they are in a position to cope with increasing business. The company's head office will remain as heretofore at 47, Leadenhall Street, London., E.C.
The Liverpool area branch of the Commercial Motor Users Association . held their last meeting at Wigan, and after the set business had been transacted, discussion centred upon the formation of a Wigan branch of the C.M.U.A. Mr. Alfred Golding was appointed chairman of the local committee, which, it is hoped, will be formed.
The committee considered a letter which had come to hand from the Birkenhead Ferries Committee concerning the damage which had been sustained by certain makes of steam vehicles using the Birkenhead luggage boats. It was suggested that their construction should be altered so as to obviate these mishaps. Although the makers of these engines are to be acquainted with the Ferry Committee's suggestions, it was thought that the gangways of the steamers were at fault.
A New Horse-box.
We illustrate on this page a new type of Leyland horse-box, which is fitted to a standard chassis mounted on pneumatic tyres. A 30-32 hp. engine is used, also a worm-driven batik axle.
The horses, twio of which may be transported at one time, can be fed en route through a partition in the back of the driver's cab. Special torpedotype ventilators are fitted in the body, which is callefully padded where necessary. The animals enter at the rear of the vehicle up the usual form of ramp, a.nd make their exit at the sides. The pneumatic-tyred horse-box is a comfortable and convenient method of racehorse transportation.
One of our pictures shows the vehicle with the side door Open and the extra gantry down, as well as one of the mangers, whilst the other picture shows the rear entrance, with divided comportmeats for two horses.
A Road Diversion
An application has been granted at the Durham Quarter Sessions for a road diversion at South Shields. The diversion applies to a scheme of improvements on the main highway between South Shields and Newcastle, the existing highway , beinginconvenient, owing to an " g " turning. The Ministry of Transport is contributing half the cost, which is estimated at £22,00.
More Buses Wanted.
If a report which has been prepared by a sub-committee is accepted, the Blackpool Corporation will purchase six motor omnibuses for new services. Three new routes, each of an approximate distance of 2L miles, are proposed, and the tramways manager—Mr. Charles Furness—in an estimate of income and expenditure of the new services which he has prepared, caleulates that for the first. three years there would be a deficit of from 22,000 to 22,500 yearly. Considering the additional travelling facilities that would be-provided, this deficit is not considered large, and, bearing in mind -the 'extending population in the districts which it is proposed to open up, it is thought that in course of time the buses should pay for themselves.
A Mann Tipper.
We illustrate on this page a. Mann wagon which has been doing eatisfaotory -work in the service of the Cardigan County Council for about 12 months. This wagon is fitted with a side-tipping body operated by the power of the en
gine. A_ friction cluteh fitted on the second motion shaft drives a cross-worm shaft by means of a roller chain, and this shaft, in turn, operates a wormwheel which is attached to a longitudinal shaft fixed to the frame and running the full length 43f the body. At each end of this shaft a sprocket pinion is provided.
At the back and front of the body an end frame is fitted, each frame caw:fief; two pulleys at the top, and a teller chain pastes over these and under the sprocket pinion at the end of the longitudinal shaft, and thence through a bracket at each side of the betty. At each end of fthis chain. a balanceeweight is fitted, which lifts the body -according to which side it is to be tipped. The longitudinal shaft, which drives these lifting chains by means of sprocket pinions, is rotated in the opposite direction by reversing the engine.
Hire v. Cost of Steam-rollers.
Durham County Surveyor reports that. he has been in negotiation with the Eddison Steam Rolling Co. for the purchase of four additional steam-rollers which are now hired from this company. The engines are in excellent order, and, where necessary, have been fitted with now front and back wheels. The life of all four engines is probably good for 10 years and for at least five years without any serious expenditure in repairs. The engines are offered the council at 2750 each. The cost of hire on prevailing terms amounts to 2330 per engine per annum, excluding driver's wages, oil and fuel, and if 230 be deducted for running repairs, it reduces the net coet for hire to 2300 per annum, which is equal to about 2i years' purchase on the Present offer. He strongly recommends the purchase of these rollers.
Rearrangement of Motor Depot.
The Bootle Motor Vehicles Committee, after-considering the question of a rearrangement of the department, has decided that the mechanical repairs and upkeep of the meter vehicles be placed tinder the supervision of the borough engineer, who is to be responsible for the regulation of vehicles and the carrying out of all cartage work. The charges to be made to the various departments for the use of corporation vehicles are to be settled on the basis of net cost, and revised once every three months on the report of the borough treasurer.
Stealing the Tractor's Thunder.
A well-known provincial agent recently arranged a two-day tractor dernenstration for the purpose of showing what his machines could do. Two tractors were employed—one drawing a twofurrow plough and the other a 7 ft. disc harrow—and, in addition, various other implements were shown on the field in which the demonstration took place. A local steam ploughing concern, however, were not going to be outdone, and the visitors to the demonstration were somewhat amused to find that a set of steam tackle had arrived in the same field, where it shared the attention of the onlookers.
The steam people bad arranged for an independent witness to be present to observe the results, and to measure and certify the area ploughed and so on, the sequel being a large advertisement inthe local paper headed "The Efficiency of Steam Ploughing."
Whatever may be the opinion as regards the methods adopted, this incident goes to show that some advocates . of steam ploughing are by no means asleep, and we publish this information as a hint to any other tractor agents who may be planning such demonstrations. It behoves them to keep a close watch on their cab's ploughing competitors!
Hired Buses for St. Helens.
St. Helens Corporation tramways committee has decided to hire two motor petrol-electric omnibuses from TillingStevens Motors, Ltd.
Southampton County Council is laying down bituminous coating on main roads. It has been discovered that an average life of 14 years could be obtained by the adoption of bituminous coating.
The latest development in the handling of the suburban traffic problem in Manchester is the ordering by the Manchester Corporation Tramways Department of two double-deck motorbuses, each to (any about 50 passengers. These vehicles are to be used beyond the outward termini of the tramway routes. In such districts it has not been found practicable to induce local authorities to undertake the laying dowia of tramway tracks, chiefly on the score of the inevitable spoiling of semi-rural roads, whilst the financial cost of track laying has imposed en additional barrier. The besea will provide a service between irregularly served areas sad will undoubtedly meet the needs of the populace for more frequent end convenient communication.
The Corporation have placed the order' for these two dredaledeekers -with the Associated Equipment Co., Ltd. They
are of the Model 4 (previously known as the S type) omnibus and are of the standard London pattern.
New Services on Old Roads.
Regarding suggested new omnibus services, the Highways 'Committee of the Middlesex County Council reports that 'there appears to be no objection to the proposed services so fax as the main roads maintained by the county council are concerned, but as difficulty has been experienced in bringing the local authorities into line, having regard to the work which will be required to prepare certain of the district roads for the suggested omnibus traffic, the committee considers that the best course to adopt is to refer the omnibus company Lo the local aathorities so far as the district roads are concerned, and this will enable the company to appeal to the Ministry against the local councils' veto, and make it possible for the road authorities to obtain an indication from the Ministry as to ho-w far the departraent would' be prepared to assist them in bringing their roads up to the desired. standard.
Burnley Corporation has decided to purchase two Ford motorvans for the cleansing department.
Southend Corporation has purchased a 1 ton Ford truck from Messrs. Fogdens at a cost of £234.
Blackburn Corporation has decided to construct an arterial road from Brownhill to Bank Hey Lane.
Cambridge Corporation has fixed charges for standiug yehicles on Market Hill at Is. a day for motorcars and 2s. for motorvans.
Rotherham Corporation is preparing details of a scheme for a new road to Sheffield, and reports that the cost will be £60,000, exclusive of the cost of land.
St. Pancras Borough Council is asking the Ministry of Transport -to prohibit new motorbus services over macadam roads which are unsuitable for such traffic.
Jail Bridge, Rotherham, has become so dangerous that a five-mile limit has been fixed for traffic. A new bridge will cost £50,000; but, meanwhile, repairs are to be carried out at, a cost of £1,500.
• Blackburn Corporation Parks Committee has asked a sub-committee to,de-al with the question of using the Aqueduct Recreation Ground as a park for motor vehicles on football match occasions at Ewood Park.
Having examined three petrol vehicles sent in by International Motors, Ltd., A.E.C., Industrial Motors, Ltd., and Leyland Motors, Ltd., and two steam wagons sent in by the Sentinel 'Waggon Works, Ltd., and Fodens, Ltd., the Works Committee of Camberwell Borough Council has reported in favour of a 5 ton Sentinel rubber-tyred end-tipping wagon for £1,185, such price to include a special. crane. The cost of refuse collection by motors is being inquired into by the Redruth TJ.D.C. surveyor.
Blackpool Tramways Committee has recommended the corporation to purchase six motorbuses.
Bath Corporation has received sanction to borrow the £7,945 required for the purchase of electric vehicles.
Wallingford Corporation is purchasing a Ford 1 ton chassis' fitted with tipping body, from Mr. H. Bowden, for £261.
Birmingham City Council has been recommended to erect now destructor works, including a garage for electric vehicles.
£6,030 is to be spent by Essex County Council on the purchase of five 5 ton Foden steam tippers and two 1 ton Ford tipping trucks.
Of the £12,500, which the Hull Corporation proposes to borrow, £10,000 is in respect of five buses required for the Stoneferry service.
Kensington Works Committee proposes to purchase from J. Chalmers and Son, Ltd., a 1 ton motorvan, with a steel-lined bottom non-tipping body, for £262 The Calcutta Corporation has ordered from ti.Ws country a fleet of electric lorries. This is to be used mainly f or the collection of refuse and the conveying of road material.
A quotation from Tilling-Stevens Motor, Ltd., amounting to £1,482 18s. 6d., has been accepted by the L.C.C. Fire Brigade Committee for the supply of a motor chassis for a turntable ladder.
Tottenham Fire Brigade Committee has recommended the acceptance, subject to the sanction of the Ministry of Health to the necessary loan, of the tender of Leyland Motors, Ltd., for the supply of a .500 'gallon pump, including lighting sot, for £1,783.
Mechanical Devices for Loading and Unloading.
We most confess to .a slight feeling of disappointment after hearing the paper read by Mr. W. D. Williamson before a special session of the Institution of Automobile Engineers at the Commercial Motor Exhibition. As a resumeof current practices it was quite satisfactory, but it did not open any new lines of thought or even bring fresh thought into practice. The author commenced by pointing out the vital importance of time in connection with road haulage_ He gave the approximate, running cost of a 4 ton lorry and showed that the standing chargesf amount practically try 3s. per hour.
He continued by stating that up to the present progress in eliminating loading delays has been along three lines, viz. : (1) Interchangeable bodies; (2) mechanical devices at the leading stations ; (3) mechanical devices on the vehicle itself. In the first section he mentioned the well-known Lancashire Fiat system, the Stamper arrangement, and the loose containers as fitted to some of the short wheelbase Pagefield lorries for goal delivery. Under the second heeding be included gravity chutes, moving platforms, cranes, winches and overhead runways. Under mechanical devices on the vehicle itself, he included winches, overhead runways with blocks and tackle, jib cranes and a special vehicle with a rising and falling platform for carrying long lengths of material.
• The paper concluded with a brief description of unloading devices such as tipping gears, a short paragraph on the handling of liquids and a description of the container system for refuse collection adopted by the Borough Engineer of Southport.