Commercial Motors at Manchester.
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The First-published Stand-to-Stand Report of the Show at the City Hall.
The main exhibits comprise: one tractor ; seven steam wagons; .2-'5 petrol vans, lorries, wagons, and chassis. The predominance of internal combustion is a noteworthy feature, and the " signs of the times '' cannot be overlooked. We take them to be, chiefly, that motors are increasingly serving longer and longer distances. Petrol appears to be favoured, owing to the lesser dead weight and the presumably-lesser demands upon rubber tires, but we should not like to think that the claims of modern three-ton steamers are ignored, in cases where loads of 3 or 4 tons are sufficient. For fire-ton loads, however, it looks as though the tire bill would be less— by at least one-third—in the ease of the petrol vehicle.
Sentinel (Stands 42 and 43).
ley Red MacLellan, Ltd., of Sentinel Works, Glasgow, stages one of its standard-pattern six-ton " Sentinel " wagons; this is a repeat order from Messrs. Kench and Sons, millers, Warwick, who have had a similar vehicle in use for over two years with very satisfactory results. Though outwardly it reveals very little sign of alteration since its debut five years ago, the maker tif this machine has embodied in it certain small detail improvements as they have been found advisable. The smokebox, or boiler top, has been simplified, and it is now constructed of mild steel. The water tank is provided with an excellem filter, and, incorporated with this, is a shut-off cock enabling the feed-pump valves to he examined without loss of water ; the water pipes may all he drained clear, in order to prevent damage by frost, without the necessity of emptying all the water out of the tank. Copper is used for the water and auxiliary steam pipes, instead of solid-drawn steel, which latter metal, though satisfactory for the main steam pipe, has, in certain other appliciaions, given trouble through corrosion. The annoyance due to breaking of copper pipes, at collars or unions, is completely avoided, by the adoption of a special form of reinforced union collar, which is fixed without brazing; this enables an absolutely-tight joint to be easily made. Detail improvements have been effected in the engine valve gear, in order to give increased durability and larger wearing surfaces, and thus to enable the wagon to be kept on the road for very long periods without the necessity of overhauling. To ensure the correct lubrication of the valve gear, a simple form of gauge glass is fitted to the casing containing this part of the
mechanism, so that there can be no excuse for lack of attention, in this respect, on the part of the driver. The "Sentinel" wagon is so designed that the whole of the control is in the hands of the driver. The motorcar type of steering, by means of an inclined hand wheel, is rendered possible by the centrally-pivoted steering wheels. Combined with the pedal stop-valves this arrangement gives the driver complete and rapid control of the vehicle. This foot control may be of great value in cases of emergency the driver has his hands free for other duty, and the wagon can be stopped very quickly.
Berna (Stand 65).
A five-ton flat-platform lorry, for Peppercorn Bros., Ltd., of Deptford is shown by 'Berea Commercial Motors, Lid., of 3, Lombard Street, KC., in addition to a smartlittle 40 to 50 cwt. worm-driven van chassis. The body of the live-tanner is particularly roomy : it is 14 ft. 5 in. long, and 7 ft. wide, and has a very comfortable cab for the driver. This vehicle is the second fiveton Berne purchased by Peppercorn -Bros. The 20 h.p. chassis is quite a new model. and the engine is of very clean and compact design ; its four cylinders are east an bloc ; the cylinders are 90 min, in diameter, and the pistonstroke 110 mm. The whole engine is suspended from the pressed-steel frame at three points. This chassis, like the same maker's live-tonner, is fitted with bail bearings throughout, including even the road-wheel journals. The fitting of hall bearings has long been a feature of the Berea motors, and any low rates of fuel consumption, which have been recorded by this maker, are probably very largely attributable to the increased efficiency of transmission which results from the. fitting of sech bearings. Polack tires are fitted to both exhibits. (‘Commer Car" (Stands 44 and 45).
Commercial Cars; Ltd., of Luton and London, is well represented by its local agent, Mr. L P. White, of 26, Bridge Street, Mat cheater, whose stand occupies a prominent position in the hall. The exhibits comprise one of the latest 30 cwt. " Commer-Car " chassis, a fiveton lorry for the Co-operative Wholesale
Society, Ltd., of Manchester, and a 30seated 36 h.p. ehar4-banes. The five-ton lorry is provided with a gear-driven capstan, and this useful device is mounted on the near side of the driver's seat. The drum is 18 in. in diameter, and is keyed on to a transverse shaft, which shaft is driven, through the medium of an enclosed double-reduction gear, from the forward end of the gearbox. The main driving pinion is of the sliding type, and it meshes with a straight-cut spur wheel on a short shaft, on one end of which shaft a worm is mounted; this worm meshes with a worm wheel on the capstan shaft. The utility of such a hoisting gear is fully appreciated by varunen who have to deal with heavy loads, such as sacks of flour, as in most ease such tacks must be lifted from the vehicle to an upper story.
The 30 cwt. chassis is one of the type which was described in our issue of the 19th August last, and,amougst its mostinteresting features is the method el tightening the chains, by means of eccentric flanges at the forward ends of the chain cases. The chain cases also serve
as radius rods for the back axle. On this model a flat cam-plate takes the place of the more-usual rotary camshaft, for operation of the selecting gear in the change-speed box. The body of the char-h-bancs is most elaborately decorated, and has heen built locally by Messrs. Bridge and Williams to the instructions of the purchasers, the Radcliffe Motor Transit Co. A separate threespeed gearbox is alongside.
Chase (Stand 48).
An undertaking with which Leyland Motors, Ltd., is intimately connected is the Chase Motor Co., of Pickup Street, Liverpool, which firm is showing an American-built light delivery van. This vehicle is fitted with a three-cylinder, aircooled, two-cycle engine of 16 up., and the transmission gear is of the epieyclie type, providing two speeds forward and one reverse. A bevel-driven differential countershaft is fitted, and the final drive is taken by light chains to the driving wheels. All the wheels are just over 3 ft. in diameter, and are fitted with solid tires 1 in. wide. The van is stated to be capable of taking a load of 10 Cwt. It is certainly of simple design, and is listed at k230, delivered free. The wheels are of ample diameter, and the van should run easily and well with light loads. We anticipate that it will appeal to many classes of new users, and we congratulate Mr. Spurrier on his " discovery " tv hen ill Syracuse.
Foden (Stand 61).
The world's premier builder of the " over-type," or, as it. is better known, the traction-type of steam wagon, Fodens. Ltd., of Sandbach, is showing two vehicles. One of these is a threetanner, the wheels of which are shod with Polack solid rubber tires; the other is a five-ton, side-tipping wagon, built for
Mr. Thomas Jackson, brickmaker, of Longsight. The tipping gear of the live-tanner may be operated either by hand or by bdt from a pulley on the crankshaft. When driven from the engine, the power is transmitted from the driving pulley, through a belt, to a flange pulley on a short transverse worm shaft; a view of this gear is given on this page. The worm meshes with a worm wheel which is mounted on a longitudinal shaft; the after-end of this shaft is of square section, so as to take a handle, for use when required for hand operation. Near each end of the longitudinal shaft, a spur pinion is fitted, and each of these pinions drives througha train of wheels, a chain sprocket, which sprocket is partly encircled by one of the two tipping chains. The ends of each chain are led over guide pulleys, and arc secured to opposite sides of the body, which may thus be tipped to either side of the wagon, as required. Feder's, Ltd., is now paying particular attention to the French market, and the threeformer will, after the show is closed, be dispstclied to the French capital. Halley (Stand 64).
There are three exhibits on the stand of the B.U.R.T. Co., Ltd., the newlyformed concern which has acquired the sole selling rights for Halley's industrial motors. One of these exhibits is a two-ton van fitted with a 20 h.p. Halley engine; this van has been built
to the order of Messrs. Blezard and Mackie, jam manufacturers, of Burnley, and it bears on the side panels the inscription " B. and M.'s Marmalade" in bold letters. From the advertisement point of view, the van body is particularly striking. Another exhibit is a 28-34 h.p., three-ton chassis; this machine has been built to the order of the Rochdale Corporation Tramways, and a tower-wagon body, like those built by the same maker for the corporations of Glasgow and Rotherham, is to be fitted. Side by side with the tower-wagon chassis is a four-ton brewer's dray, for Dix and Co., Ltd., of the Shelton Brewery, Stokeon-Trent, and it is practically identical with other lorries that have previously been supplied to Messrs. Cobbold and Co., of Ipswich, and Turner's Brewery, of Ayr. IIalley's industrial motors have previously been fitted with Tylor engines, but our readers will be interested to learn that this Scottish company is now manufacturing engines in its own works at Yoker, near Glasgow. All three machines are chain driven. and the hubs of the chain sprockets, as may be seen from two of our illustrations, are threaded externally. so as to facilitate their removal from the differential shafts when ever necessary. A special tool is provided, and this tool consists of a screwed cap, from the blind end of which two portions are cut away, so as to leave two flat faces, which may be held by means of a large spanner. When a sprocket is to be removed from the shaft, the nut is first removed from the end of the differential shaft, and the internally-threaded cap is then screwed on to the hub of the chain sprocket until the blind end butts up against the end of the differential shaft ; any further screwing motion, which may be given to the cap, causes the sprocket to be moved axially towards the end of the shaft. True, this is only a small detail, but it is typical of many practical features which have done much to popularize Halley motors. A further reference to this company's productions, and the arrangements that now exist for their sale throughout the world, appears on page 528, on which page, also, is a view of Halley-'s Manchester depot. "Harrier Car" (Stands 46 and 47).
The exhibits of that enterprising young concern, Clayton and Co., Ltd., of Huddersfield, comprises one of its new-type 25-cwt. chassis, with a 16 h.p., twocylinder Tylor engine placed under the bonnet, and two three-ton wagons. In the case of the lighter model, the
power is transmitted to a differential countershaft, through a leatherfaced cone clutch, and a three-speed and-reverse gearbox. The first and reverse gears in this box are of the sliding type, whilst the second and top. speed gears arc of the always-in-mesh type, and are operated by dog clutches. The chassis has been sold to Messrs. J. and E. Bentley and Co., dyers and finishers, of Halifax.
One of the three-tonners has been built to the order of the Huddersfield Industrial Society, Ltd., whilst the purchasers of the other vehicles are Messrs. Samuel Wilkinson and Sons, of Elland, which firm are large manufacturers of fireclay goods. The wagon is required at times to deal with loads of bricks, and, for that reason, it is fitted with the Clayton patent tipping gear ; this gear was illustrated in our issue of the 24th June, last—the issue containing the report of the Royal Show at Gloucester. The wagon for the Huddersfield Industrial Society is provided with a hoisting drum on each of the differential shafts. The drums are keyed to the shafts, and, of course, may ne rotated at any one of the speeds for which the gearbox provides. On the inner end of each drum is a positive clutch member that meshes with a
corresponding jawed extension on each sprocket. The chain sprockets may, therefore, be disengaged from the differential shafts when the drums are required for hoisting. Both three-tonners are fitted with lour-cylinder, 30 h.p. Tylor engines, but, unlike the 25 cwt. model, they are arranged under the driver's footboard. Polack tires are fitted throughout. Testimony from a " Harrier Car " user will be found on page 545.
Leyland (Stands 49, 50 and 51).
The most-imposing collection of commercial vehicles in the whole hall is that
staged by Leyland Motors, Ltd., of Leyland, and, of the five vehicles which this company is showing, undoubtedly the most interesting is its new six-ton geardriven steam wagon, which has been built to the order of Greenall, Whitley and Co., Ltd., of St. Helens; it is a sixth repeat order for that company. This machine has all the most-suitable points of the same maker's earlier steam wagons combined with essential features of its six-ton petrol lorry. Ithas one of the well known Leyland vertical firetube boilers, and the engine is of the three-cylinder, single-acting vertical type ; the crankshaft is arranged parallel to the axis of the chassis, and the final drive is transmitted to the rear wheels through a propeller shaft and a double-reduction gearbox which is mounted on a stout, dipped, back axle. The axle is designed to take the whole of the imposed load on the back wheels, and, for that purpose, hollow extensions project from the dipped bed, and, on these extensions, the spring beds and wheel journals are formed. The drive to the wheels is transmitted from the double-reduction gearbox. hy means of differential shafts, which shafts pass through the hollow extensions of the fixed axle. A lever, to control the differential locking-gear, is conveniently arranged ; it is located on the off.sido main-frame member.
Reverting to the engine, it should be noted that the valves are of the mush
room type and are operated by a single camshaft ; this shaft may he moved endwise, in order to vary the point of cutoff, and for the purpose of reversing the engine. The engine cylinders are 4 in. in diameter, and the piston-stroke is
6 in. The steam is slightly superheated, and a feed-water heater is also fitted, the resulting saving in the rate of water consumption being considerable. We understand that, the rate of evaporation is about eight gallons per mile when the wagon is fully loaded, and running on average Lancashire rods. Interposed between the after-end of the crankshaft and the forward universal joint of the propeller shaft, a two-speed gearbox is fitted, and this box also carries a wormdriven transverse shaft, front one end of which shaft the opposed pumps, one for 1 Payment is made for any News or Information accepted for publication in "The Commercial Motor.' (i)
lubricating oil and one for the feedwater, are driven.
Side by side with the new steamer is one of the same maker's five-ton 35-40 h.p. petrol lorries. The vehicle has been built to the order of J. Hawkins and Co., Ltd., of Greenbank Mills, Preston. A 2i-ton petrol van, built to the order of W. and R. Jacob and Cu., Lid., the well-known biscuit makers, is also exhibited, and this is the third repeat order for the same purchaser. Another exhibit is a Royal Mail van, for running between Liverpool and Manchester, by Messrs. J. Blake and Co. This machine is worm-driven, and is fitted with a 24 h.p., four-cylinder engine. No fewer
than 22 similar vans are now on order for mail contracts in different parts of the country. The fifth exhibit is a 40 h.p., single-deck bus for Parsons,of Cliorleya second repeat order. The tires fitted to the Leyland exhibits
are as follow ; Polacks on the bus and the Royal Mail van; Shrewsbury and Challiners on the six-ton wagon and the van for Jacob's. The steamer's wheels have steel tires_ The neat Leyland caststeel-centred wheels are fitted on all this company's exhibits_ Lowcock (Stand 66).
The Lowcock Commercial Co., of 0:Lytham, Manchester, has in position a 32 h.p., four-ton Armstrong-Whitworth petrol lorry. This model was originally built, in large numbers, for motorbus service in London, and we were informed at the stand, by Captain Lowcock, of scme highly-satisfactory records in trade service. A Krebs carburetter is fitted, also a. low-tension Simms-Bosch magneto, whilst engine lubrication is effected by a plunger pump in the crankcase, the crankshaft being hollow. There is a four-speed gearbox and side-chain drive. The unladen weight of the vehicle is 3 tons 13 ewt., and it is fitted with Polack tires to all wheels. A second Armstrong-Whitworth vehicle was ex. pected, hut it had not come to hand at the time when our representatives left Manchester on Saturday evening. These machines have been christened " liocomo," in the Manchester district, and the Loweock Co. will he pleased to deal with any classes of inquiries in connection with motor haulage or other commercial requirements. Mann (Stand 41).
The wagon here staged has been built to the order of Messrs. J. S. and J. Horwood, of Enelow Mills, Bletchington, Oxon., and it is a worthy follower of the many successful wagons which have been turned out by its maker. The engine bed is now bung from the mail frame from three points, a method of construction which entirely obviates tha possibility of distortion of the engine bearings. This improved method of suspension, coupled with the fact that the main bearings have been enlarged, should give increased length of service to an already hard-wearing wagon. One of the good points about the Mann wagon is the large size of the inspection doors that are fitted to the crankcase; these doors allow free access for examination of the valve gear. Details such as inspection doors may appear to some people trivial, but, to the experienced steam-wagon user, they mean much. The brakes have received special attention, and the combination of a rapidly-applied foot brake with a screwoperated hand brake, such as is fitted to the wagon staged, gives a driver confidence in the handling of his vehicle, a condition which is so Pecessary when operating in crowded traffic, or cm hilly country roads. The boiler has so recently been the subject of comment, in our series of articles on boilers for steam wagons and tractors, that we need make no further mention of it here.
The feed-water heater, which is fitted in the smoketiox by this maker, is well worthy of note, because of the means which are provided for the thorough cleansing of the inside of the tubes, and of the provision of a simple two-way plug valve to divert the flow of feed water, from the heater direct to the boiler, when required. The latter fitting is useful, as it, enables a driver to keep down the rate of steam generation when travelling in crowded traffic through towns, or, in the remote contingency of a burst tube, the heater can be entirely .cut out of the feed-water circuit.
Milnes-Daimler (Stand 67).
There is but one exhibit on the :IliInesDaimler stand, and that is one of the company's latest six-ion petrol-wagon chassis. For really high-class workmanship, this machine has but few equals, and, since one of its type was first shown at Olympia, in 1908, very few alterations have been made in the 'design, but such alterations are in the direction of simplicity and efficiency. The rear brackets of the leading springs are now provided
with helical-spring shock absorbers, and these titLiugs certainly relieve the engine of much wear and tear due to road shocks. The four-cylinder 35 h.p. engine is mounted on to tbe chassis by a threepoint suspension system; it is allowed to pivot on a large single bearing at the forward end, about the starting handle, whilst the after-end is supported by cardan-jointed brackets, or trunnions, which are bolted to the aluminium crankcase. It is interesting to note that, since the first engine of this type was built, the wearing surfaces of the cardan joints or trunnions have been considerably increased. One of our illustrations shows a side view of the engine, and we would direct our readers' attention to the simple low-tension make-and-break gear that is now fitted to each cylinder. The number of moving parts in this important device is reduced to a minimum. The carburetter, too, has been slightly modified, hut this only in respect of the exhaust jacket ; for use in Great Britain, where petrol fuel is generally used, the heating jacket is not needed. The internally-toothed rings on the back wheels are now completely enclosed.
The change-speed gearbox is a complete unit in itself, and carries with it the selecting gear and the change-speed lever ; the form of construction employed entirely avoids any straining of the selecting gear, due to the whipping or warping of the main frame, a condition which it is impossible to avoid without making the frame unduly stiff and heavy. A typical instance of the attention which has been given to the design of details is that of the steering levers.
Ryknield (Stands 62 and 65).
A chassis, a van, and a char-a-banes comprise the three exhibits of the Byknield Motor Co., Ltd., of Burton-onTrent. Of these exhibits, the van, which is fitted with an 18-20 h.p., twocylinder engine, has a very high-class. body; this has been built by Mr. Henry Eaton, of Manchester, and the vehicle will form part of the Ry-knield Co.'s exhibit at the forthcoming Brussels Exhibition. The chassis is one of the company's latest type " 11," of which type some 40 machines are now on order for the Compagnie GpInerale des Autobus, Brussels. A large number has already been supplied for tower wagons, fire tenders, vans and other vehicles to carry up to three tons of impoaed loads. The char-d-bancs is mounted on a chassis of the same type. All the bolts and nuts used in the construction of this chassis are of half-inch diameter, and, although in sonic few cases the impression given. is that the bolts are unnecessarily large, much is to be said in favour of the compeny's decision to have one diameter of bolt only. The total weight of the chassis is stated to be 2 tons 8 cwt.
The final drive of the new model is taken through encased, external-toothed gearing, and the differential countershaft
is carried on a triangular perch-bar ; the -tractive effort is transmitted to the chassis through a. spiral plate-spring fitted at the apex of the triangular perch ; this .spring, and a newly-added tailpiece, ;prevents the transmission to the en :gine and gearbox of all shocks, due to sudden starting, and the application of the brakes. There is, now, an extra cross-member. A very ingenious form of mechanism for the 'disengagement of the clutch is fitted, which crevice facilitates the dismantling of the clutch when necessary for the refacing of the cone with leather, and its presence obviates _all chance of end thrust's being transmitted to either the crankshaft or gearbox main shaft. The 40 h.p. engine, which is fitted to this chassis, has four cylinders 4,1 in. in diameter, with a piston-stroke of 52y in., and its speed is controlled by means of a double-ended pedal. When the right-hand end of this pedal is depressed, the engine is accelerated, but any depression of the left-hand end causes the throttle valve to be closed, and, later, a number of cold-air ports are opened above the throttle valve; through these ports, cold air is admitted to the induction pipe for the purpose of air-cooling when coasting down hills, etc.
Steel dashboards, with steel sideplates and steel honnet-scatings, are fitted on all the chassis, and there are no wooden strips in the vicinity of the petrol tank, carburetter, or any part of the engine. The petrol tank, in each case, is slung from the dashboard and is pro
vided with a large hinged filling cap, in addition to a special type of shut-off valve, the regulating handle of which valve may be set in any one of three positions. These positions are (a) petrol supply to engine cut off ; (b) uninter
rupted flow of petrol from tank to carbnretter until only a gallon of petrol is left, in the tank ; and, when in position (c), the valve permits of the flow of the remainder of the petrol from the tank to the carburetter. The idea of this arrangement is that the driver shall receive warning of the approaching exhaustion of the fuel supply, while there is still sufficient fuel in the tank to take the vehicle in to the nearest petrol store.
Both the chassis and the char-a-bancs are fitted with cast-steel wheels, made by Atlas Resilient Road Wheels, Ltd., which company's offices are at 37, Cross Street, Manchester, and one set of these wheels is shod with Shrewsbury and Challiner tires, whilst to the other set Polack tires are fitted. " S. and C." tires aro on the van.
"Little Giant" (Stand 68).
The only tractor in the City Hall JS the " B2 '' type of " Little Giant," shown by W. Maker and Sons, Ltd., of the Waterloo Iron Works, Andover, Hants., which machine is one of the company's standard compound motors ; it is fitted with a Pickering governor, The engine has been sold to Messrs. R. Blackett and Sons, of Houghton Road Brick Works. Darlington. One of this maker's traction-type of steam wagons,
the details of which vehicle were fully illustrated and described in our issue of the 9th December last, is also staged. It had been the intention of this company to show also the special trailer that has been sold to work with the tractor, but, on account of the restricted space on the stand, this was found to be impossible.
Walker (Stand 69).
Walker Bros. (Wigan), Ltd., of Page. fieldIron Works, Wigan, is now deservedly securing a recognized market for its two-ton model. The company has wisely concentrated upon a single type, with 16-18 h.p. two-cylinder engine, and two examples of this are on view. One is a chassis without body, and the second is a complete vehicle, sold to the Beswick Pottery Co., of Manchester, with crate sides. The gears of these machines are always in mesh, and are engaged by dogs of speci ally-hardened ateel. The engine gives its full power at 850 r_p_m_ Both exhibits are attracting much attention.
Yorkshire (Stand 70).
A. substantially-built six-tonner is shown by the Yorkshire Patent Steam Wagon N., of Leeds, and this bears upon the sides and front the words " Hijos de Mirat, Salamanca;" it is a repeat sale to this Spanish customer. The boiler is of the Colonial type, and some of the details of tha wagon have been altered, in order to conform to the special requirements of the purchaser, and to suit the roads of the country in which it is to be run. An enginedriven feed pomp is fitted to this wagon, as an alternative to the second injector which is usually fitted by the Yorkshire Co. The simile-chain drive, vertical engine, and transverse boiler, as arranged on this vehicle, are characteristic of the maker's latest export model.
On Other Stands.
One of the 8 h.p. friction-driven Forrest vans, the chassis of which was described in our issue of the 21st May, 1908, is exhibited on Stand No. 38, by the Wade Engineering C.o., Ltd.
A smart little express-delivery vehicle for Maple and Co., Ltd., of London and Paris, is also shown. It may be found on Stand No. 32, where it is staged by Messrs. L. F. Harvey and Co., of 6, Chapel Street. Manchester. The chassis of this vehicle is one.. of the " Autocarrier" type, which is handled by F. B. Goodchild and Co., Ltd.