THE OLYMPIA SHOW.
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The Editor's Stand-to-Stand Report of Commercial Vehicle Exhibits.
We have introduced our forecast (November 2nd, itage IA, anticipated the commercial exit:hits (November gtn, pnges 158 to tb1), and advised our readers what to see (November 16th, pag,res 176 to nii). The Show was opened on Friday last and the hutugural luncheon was marked by
Mr. tlrrhur Sran,ey's endorsement view that, subjctet to qualified direction and control, the unemployed might very well be put id work on our highways, both old and new, a course which has already been adopted in Spain. Now for the exhibits themselves.
Numerical hey to Exhibitors.
Exhibitor. No. Exhibitor. No. -15-Argyll. 16-Iden. 33-De Dietrich.
35-Arrol-Johnston. 36--Liversidge. 33-Straker and Squire. 54-Wolseley. 55-Coulthard. 56--Thornyeroft 73-Milues-Dainder.
74-Ele Dion. 75-Sin) s 76-Lacn2.
g5-James and Browne. 9b-Struker (Steam). 1.20-Albert Herbert, Ltd.
12 Mellinish, Ltd. 122-Wil1cox and Co., Ltd.
S-Dnnenthal and Co. r50--Matidslay.
157-Wallis add Steevens. r38-,.Seyrnours, Ltd. (Dixi;. 459-Scott-Stirlin2. ror-Thames Engineering. 162-Jesse Ellis 163-Hay.
r65-Brit. Auto. Dvpt. rgoStraker and MaeConnell. I67-Legros and Knowles. rd8-Green.
17o-Eastbourne Motor ',Vurks. 172-Foden.
178 -White and Poppe, 17g-.Aster, Ltd. 182-Liversidge.
153-R1Ibery and Co.
184.Joseph Owen and Sons. 187-Willans and Robins, Exhibitors and Stand Numbers.
Argyll Motors, Ltd., Argyll Works, Glasgow 05.. Arrui-Johnston Car Co., New, Ltd., Paisley (35n Beaufort Motor Co., 14, Baker Street, British Auto. Dypint. Co., 'Ltd., Belvedere Road, S.E. (165). Clarkson, T. Ltd., Moulsham Works, Chelmsford (93n Coulthard, T., and Co., Ltd. Preston (55).
De Dion-Bouton, Ltd., to, Gt. Marlborough Street, W.1741. De Dietrich et Cie., 45, Gt. Marlborough Street, W. (33). Dennis Bros., ltd., Ouslow Street, Guildford i))41. Eastbourne Mote: ■Vorks, Terminus Road, Eastbourne (170). Fiat Motors, Ltd., 37 and 38, Long Acre, W.C. (34l• Eotlens, Limited, Elworth Works, Sandbach (172J. Creen, T., and Sons, Ltd., Smithfield Ironworks, Leeds OW. Hay Maar Co., T.td., 20, South John Street, Liverpool (163n Idcri Motor Car Co., T.td., Parkside, Coventry (ifil. James and Browne, Ltd., 395, Oxford Street, W. (p5)jeset Ellis and Co., Ltd., Invieta Works, Maidstone (162). 1.a.cr2 Motor Car Co., .Ltd., 1-5, Poland Street, W. (76). I.tigros and Knowles, Ltd., Willesden Junction, N.W. (167l. Liversidge, J., and Scn, Ltd., 196, Old Street, E.C. (36;. Matirl.slav Motor Co., Ltd., Parkside, Coventry (1561. :\filucs-Dainder, I.td., 221, Tottenham Court Road, W. Mors, Ltd., 55-3g, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. 11641.
Motor Car Emporium, Ind., za, Addison Road North (174). Scott-Stirling and Cm, Ltd., Twickenham (159).
Scymours, Ltd. !DiX1.1, 20-22, Brounnon Road, S.W. (i58). Sunnis Mufg. Co., Ltd., iNelbeck Works, Kilburn (75). Straker and MacConnell, 1.td., 275, Old Bond Street (i66:. Straker and Squire, g, Bush Lane, Cannon Street, E.C. (53; Straker Steam Vehicle Co., Ltd., g, Bush Lane, E.C. (96). Thames Engineering Works, Greenwich, S.E. (16r). Thornycroft, J. I., and Co., ltd., Chiswick (56j.
Wallis and Sreevens, T..td., Basingstoke (157).
Wdlans and Robinson, I.td., Rugby (187).
Wolseley Tool and Motor Co., Ltd., Birmingham (34). ARGYLL (is).—Two interesting specimens of the output from the Bridgeton works are exhibited. It is a pity that this company's commercial stand is placed where the light is so bad for photographic purposes, and we are unable, for that reason, to give an illustration. Pneumatic tyres are used on the front wheels, and 3-inch solid rubber tyres on the driving wheels. This variation in the tyres will reduce the cost of upkeep compered with earlier vans turned out by the Bridgeton works. The reliability of the Argyll touring cars is a guarantee that the commercial branch of the same company, which is now emerging from a somewhat nebulous existence, will be conducted on thoroughly businesslike lines. Each vehicle shown is fitted with a two-cylinder to-a2h.p. engine; the price of the delivery van to carry a 15cwt. load is L35o, and that of the traveller's sample carrier, which has twb seats in is L'380.
IDEN (r6).—The a-ton petrol chassis, which has been designed by Mr. George Hen, appears thoroughly suitable for the work intended. It is driven by chain, with a direct drive from the engine to the differential shaft when running in top gear. The engine is of the four-cylinder type, designed to give 25-3oh.p. This chassis is also designed to carry a 25teated passenger body.
DE DIETRICH (331.—A Paris-built omnibus is shown here by Charles JarTots and Letts, Limited. It is fitted wit'l a four-cylinder 24h.p. engine, and the design is so arranged that an unusually low frame is rendered possible. This-vehicle is the outcome of considerable experimental running made by De Dietrich vehicles of lighter types in public passenger service, 211d it certainly promises wcil for the future of the new factory near Paris, at which production will be confined to heavy lorries and omnibuses. Particular attention is directed to the back springs: the top set of leaves are hung outside the frame, with the flap resting upon the top of the axle inside the arm, whilst a supplementary set of leaves is secured inside the elbow of the bend in the axle and comes directly underneat'i the frame, to take the load when necessary. This is illustrated on page 203. It will be noted that the step is on the off side, this being the Paris rule; whilst the distribution of weight between the two axles is practically equal. E.I.A.T(34).—A 24h.p. omnibus chassis, in which the engine and wheels deserve particular attention. The frame is narrowed towards the front, and the construction is exceptionally stout. The final transmission is by two side chains, whilst she gear-box is compactly neat. Four speed and reverse are fitted, and a metal-to-metal disc clutch, somewhat after the Hele-Shaw pattern, is the means of the first transmission from the engine. The chassis is fitted with three brakes, all of which are very powerful. A notable feature of this F.I.A.T. chassis is the lubricating system, which is automatic in its action, and only conies into operation when the engine is running. The supply of oil is proportioned to the speed at which the engine revolves.
ARROL-JOHNSTON (35).—The omnibus exhibited on this stand was fully described by us in our issue of the 9th instant. The special features are the tubular radius rods, which carry the differential shaft bearings, and the method of adjusting the rods from behind the axle, to take up any slack in the chains; the method of enclosing Cu.: chain drive; t!..e
attachment of the springs ; the transverse parallel radius rods, secured to a bracket on the back axle to prevent side sway ; the universal joints, which are designed to keep all the driving efforts in one plane ; the system of engine and gearbox lubrication ; and the derivation of the magneto trip movement from the inlet valve rods. Mr. J. S. Napier, the winner of the recent Tourist Trophy Competition in the Isle of Man, and the managing director of the New .Arrol-Johnston Car Company, Limited, informs us that he is in a position to begin fresh deliveries of omnibuses of this type in January next. Although the vehicle is a new one, the bases of the system have proved their worth, and we have no hesitation in commending it to those who are on the point of making purchasz:s of motor omnibuses, because it is thoroughly well suited for the work in view. 'Ihe great economy of the engine, its easy cent...A, and the general facility of making adjustments and replacements throughout the whole machine are points which cannot be spoken too highly of. There is also shown on this stand an excellent example of a 3ocv.t. petrol lorry, of which a number are in service for the London County Council and ether users. Repeat orders have been placed with the Paisley Works by a number of users who began operations with a single vehicle.
LI t ERSIDG E (36 and 1821.—The bodies built by J. Liversidge and Sen, Ltd., are not limited to these two stands alone; examples of the company's exceilent workmanship can be seen in many parts of the exhibition. The great demand for omnibus and van bodies whi:Ii ie now the talk of coach-building circlts has found this company any amount of work for its shops, which extension of patronage is due to the good workmanship put into the vehicles. The standard types of 34-seated omnibuses for London are well worth an examination, and the special body, with a canopy, which is exhibited on the Motor Car Emporium's stand (No. 74), shows that special designs can be undertaken by this company as well as standard work. The De Nevers grooved rubber tyres, for which Liversidges are agents, will be found on many of the exhibits in the commercial section, and on the cempany's stand in the Gallery. STRAKER and SQCIRE (53).The late.st mode's, built in England under license from II. "hissing, are shown on this stand. A double-deck omnibus to the order of the London Road Car Company. and a corresponding chassis, are to be seen, the former being -one of 140 011 ceder for the saute purchasers. The frame has been widened at the back, in order to give better support to the body, and it nov. rain.sures 3 feet 3;1.inches at the front, and 3 feet inches at the Lack. 'The back axle is 2'4'; inches deep by
inches wide, of hest fagetied iron. The, curl ■ system of two change-speed boxes has been abandoned, but a double reduction is elfected in the differential casing by means of a short shaft carrying a bevel wheel at one end, and a sineil
pinion, which into the teethed of the different•al on the last transverse shaft of the tiansmission, at the other end. Theback springs are 52 inch,— lorg, and each has -.we've leaves, wh int the width over the ,ixIe caps is ;r fc, An interesting feature in the construrtMa of the chassis is the top-plating at :he rear rtila ci the frame, ard a short length of plating on the under-side at the frame further forward: the frame of this latest type is 5 inches lower than on the early type. The gear b3x is placed close up to the clutch, which eliminates any long rods, and the change-speed lever interlocks in all positions, so that no two gears can move at the same) time. The retrol tank forms the front seat, gravity feed being employed. Two small but usefui points in the control of the vehicle may be mentioned: one is that the foot throttle lever can be instantly clipped in any position by means of a screwed clamp round the vertical rod: the other is the provision of a long hand lever, hinged to the dashboard, which brings forward ii catch to fit the clutch pedal and so hold the clutch out while the vehicle is at rest. The compensating action for the brake to the drums on the back wheels is arranged in a very simple manner. The total weight of the chassis is about a tons z3ewt., and the finish is in keeping with the excellent workmanship and the neatness of the design; all who examine the engine must be struck by its appearance and the accessibility of the parts. -An interesting exhibit on the same stand is the 2411.p. ambulance, of which the wheel base is a feet less than that of the omnibus chassis. The sides, roof and floor are all lined with ininch felt, and there are rubber blocks at intervals between the frame and the body. (Photo. on page 215.) WOLSELEV f341.--The 6h.p. delivery van, sold to las-Genes and 'Co., T.td., and xi, Gutter Lane, Cheapside, is a particularly smart-looking vehicle, and one 6vhich would prove very attractive as an advertisement. It will be noticed that the nositions of the petrol and water tanks have been reversed on the omnibus chassis, whilst the water is circulated first through the radiators placed at the sides and then through a supplementary radiator placed in front of the vehicle. A number of these omnibus-es are on order, as a result of the performance of others in actual service, and they certainly deserve to be inspected by all who visit the Show intending to make themselves acquainted with the motor omnibuses of today. Another interesting exhibit on the same stand is a 3-ton delivery van for the Great Western Railway, this having a is-foot wheel-base, compared with one of to feet 6 inches, which is the standard fir the omnibuses. All who buy Wolscley vehicles can rely on satisfactory attention when they become customers.
COULTHARD (55).--Two examples of the Coulthard standard 5-ton steam wagons are shown, each of which is a repeat order. This company is one of the pioneers in the strait; wagon movement, and the result is embodied in the latest vehicles, which will be explained to any visitor by Mr. E. W. Rudd, the London representative. It may be mentioned that Messrs. Bowley and Son furnished us with the complete log of their vehicle's performance some month; ago, and the records then obtained have since been eclipsed. Ample wearing surfaces are provided in the engine, gears, and transmission generally, and particular attention may be drawn to the system of spherical bearings on the differential shaft. All who are interested in steam wagon construction will :find pleasure in looking at the automatic feed pump and in examining the boiler, because trouble seldom or never arises now on a Coulthard wagon from either of these sources. A feature Of the control is that the brake wheel, which operates the shoe brakes on the back wheels, is of the same diameter as the steering wheel, and is placed directly beneath it on the steering column.
TITORNYCROFT (56).—This company does not exhibit any steam wagons, but confines the examples of its manufacture to the petrol vehicle side. At the same time, we were interested to learn from Mr. John E. Thornycroft that a satisfactory business continues to be done in the company's well-known steam lorries fot loads varying between three and save'; tons. The re05 type of omnibus chassis has a 2413.p. four-cylinder engine, and the single c.hain drive has been dispensed with in favour of the more usual side chains. The price of the complete vehicle, with a 34-seated body, built at the Basingstoke factory, is ,41100. A Hele-Shaw clutch is employed, and it may be mentioned that the plates are larger than heretofore, whilst bronze and steel plates are alternated, The rear end of the back springs, each of which has 14 leaves, is coupled to._ a transverse spring, and the chain sproc kcts are neatly clipped to the back spokes in a special manner, which obviates the necessity of boring the wood. The width across the frame is 3 feet 4 inches ; the r)ver-all width 6 feet 6 inches. The weight of the chassis is a tons 15 cwt., and the channel frame is 4 inches by 2 inches by 5-16 inch. The satisfactory results obtained with the single chain drive render it somewhat difficult CO follow why the Thornycroft Company should change to the other type, and we anticipate a continued demand for vehicles built with each system of transmissicn. In the latest type the height of the frame front the ground is 2 feet 9 inches ; but the body and passengers depress this no less than 5 inches. It may be mentioned that 35 Thornyeroft omnibuses are on order for the London Motor Omnibus Co., and that a nUmber have already been shipped to India, Italy, Malta, Australia, etc. Other exhibits on the same stand are a van chassis, which has been sold to the Director General of Stores for the IndiaOffice, and a 3-ton lorry.
MTLNES-DAIMLER (73).—Three interesting examples of the vehicles supplied by this Company are on exhibition. They consist of' three double-deck omnibuses. Two of the double-deck busts are supplied to the orders of Thomas Tilling, Ltd., and the London and North-Western Railway Company, and both chassis arc identical in construction. Each has a 28h.p. frmr-eylinder motor, and all the latest improvements, the design providing for a maximum speed of 14 miles per hour on ordinary roads, The gross weight, in complete working order, is
The small omnibus has been built to the order of Sir Ernest Cassel, and the body has been specially fitted up for his requirements. The engine has four cylinders, and develops igh.p. at a normal speed of Soo revolutions per minute. Each cylinder has a bore of -women. by irmrn. stroke. Both exhaust and inlet valves are mechanically operated, and the engine is governed by hand through the medinin of a lever which actuates a valve placed in the induction pipe. Lowtension magneto ignition of the standard type is supplied, and the carburetter has an improved float feed. Water circulation is by means of a rotary gear-driven pump, which revolves, approximately, at 1,400 revolutions per minute. Transmission is by a cone clutch to the gear-box, and from thence by a longitudinal shaft, previded with universal joints, to the inclined dinerentiai cross shafts carrying pinions at the ends which mesh with two internally-toothed gear rings on the inner side of the driving wheels. Four speeds are provided in the gear-box, and these have ratios of, approximately, 8, and m4 miles per hour, at See revolutions per minute. Lubrication of the cylinders, cranks, and gear-box is by pressure-feed lubricator,;, which are placed on the dash in easy reach and view of the driver. These have regulators which can be adjusted to suit the requirements of any particular hearing. There are three brakes The first acts upon the intnrenediate gear shaft, the second on a pair of brake blocks, which bear upen the surface of the back road wheels, and the third is a double-acting brake bearino on drums en the differential cross shalt. The wheel base is in ft. 6 in., whilst the over-all width is 6 ft. 6 in. It nueet he observed that delivery of ?diInes-Daimler omnibuses cannot be given for nenee than ift months. early twenty passengers, fitted with a a4-3oh,p. four-cylinder engine ; a petrel lorry, having a iih.p. two-cylinder engine; and a delivery yen, with an Sh.o. engine. The char-a-bane has a similar engine. to the one used on the buses now running so successfully in the streets of London, and it has useful features which will commend themselves to those who are inteiested inh tee motor omnibus movement. Special care has been bestowed upon the question of efficient lubrication for the engine, gear box, and differential shaft. The crank chamber and gear box are each supplied with an automatic oil forcing pump, and from these distributing pipes lead to the bearings. The crank shaft is drilled longitudinally to permit the discharge of the oil to the centre of the journals. The risk of a smoky exhaust when running is done away with by the fact that the engine is given the proper amount of oil for its requirements. The vehicle under notice has a system of dual ignition, in which a magneto can be used .alternatively with accumulators and a coil : the sparking plugs, coil and contact breaker are common to birth systems. rhis method gives
simplicity of wiring and is very efficient. 'flie gear box end differential shaft have a three-point suspension, and the workmanship displayed throughout the entire chassis is excellent. It should he added Iliac the big London orders for this make have been taken by the Motor Car ESIIForium, Limited.
SIMMS (75).—Mr. Simms shows a cumoleic, omnibus, built to the order of the Loncion Motor Omnibus Co., Ltd., of Albany House, Albany Street, N.W., and is bus chassis. The details of these are identical, and we heartily congratulate him upon both the design and workmanehip displayed. The stand also contains a light delivery van fitted with a re-i4h.p. engine of the standard type. The bus is tined with a four-cylinder vertical engine, which gives out 2811.p. at Soo revolutions per minute. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and have a stroke of i3emin., whilst the bore is iaorron. The engine is governed, and this works in conjunction with an automatic carburetter of the standard pattern. Inlet and exhaust valves are mechanically-operated by a 2 to 1 camshaft placed on the left-hand side of the crank chamber, The crankshaft is machined from a solid steel forging, and is designed with large diameter pins, and long bearing surfaces. The large combined honeycomb radiator and water tank is fastened to the frame by two slotted brackets and pins, and this efficiently absorbs any strain which might otherwise be set up by the variation in temperature of the cooling water, and the consequent expansion and contraction of the framework of the radiator. A watercirculating pump of the gear-wheel type is driven oft a shaft at the right-hand side of the crank chamber. A large strap driven fan 'Sin, in diameter is placed immediately behind the radiator, and sucks a constant current through the honeycomb and on to the cylinders. Splash lubrication is used, but a special arrangement is fitted to keep the oil at a constant level in the base.chamber. This consists of a small adjustable vertical tube, which projects vertically into the crank chamber at a certain height, and when the oil reaches the top of this tube it flows down it into an auxiliary oil chamber placed below the crank case. The surplus oil can be used again for the next day's run. The gear box has three speeds forward and reverse, and the ratios are approximately 3, 7, and is miles per hour, at Soo revolutions per minute. The gear wheels are always in mesh, and the "gate" principle of speedchanging is used. The gear box, which k 311. 4in. long, has no lugs for boltingdown purposes, as in the usual practice, but two strongly-webbed plates are cast in one with it, and these reach from one side of the chassis to the other. This construction forms a very strong central portion, and tends to strengthen the frame, and keep it from twisting. Transmission is by a Hele-Shaw metal-to-metal clutch and a longitudinal shaft, having a universal joint at each end, to the gear box, and frem thence to the transverse differential shaft by bevel gearing. The final reduction is by side chains to gear rings bolted to the driving wheels. Two powertul brakes are fitted, either of which is capable of stopping the vehicle on any ordinary hill. The first is a band brake, which grips two discs placed inside the sprocket pinions on the differential shaft ; the second consists of two expanding lings, which work in drums on the back wheels. Channel steel, with a section of 4in. by sin, is used in the building of the frame ; it is thoroughly braced at all the necessary points, and transverse members are fitted where required. The forepart of the frame has two castings bolted to it for the reception of the engine, and these form part of the dust-excluding apron which completely covers in the under-side of the motor. Back springs, having a length of 4ft., are fitted underneath the frame, and these have 13 leaves each. Front and back axles have a rectangular section, the size of the latter being sin. We congratulate Mr. Fredk. R. Simms very heartily on this chassis.
The 12-14h.p. van on show has a similar chassis to the one which was bought over six months by the Mansfield Laundry Company, of Mansfield. This vehicle has been put to hard and continuous work, and has given es ery satisfaction.
LACRE (76).—The Lacre exhibit is of particular interest as being put forward by a company which has shown great enterprise in the development of its commercial motor section. The company specialises in a two-cylinder x6h.p. chassis, built at the Albion Works, Glasgow.
Small variations in the arrangement of the chassis provided for the different classes of loads may be ieferred to. When the chassis is to be fitted with a lorry body to carry 15cwt., the engine is governed to work normally at 95o revolutions per minute; in this case the chain pinion has is teeth, the chain sprocket 34 teeth, and the approximate average speedis x6 miles per hour. For the second type, a lorry to carry 20evrt. to 24cwt., the normal engine speed is 7oo revolutions per minute, the sprocket ratio 12 to 34, and the approximate average speed 12 miles an hour. The third type, to carry a load of two tons, has a normal engine speed of goo revolutions per minute, a tooth ratio of ro to 45, and an average speed of to miles an hour. The standard road wheel diameter is 34i0. throughout the series. It is possible, of course, to select the engine speed and gear ratio that are most suitable for any specified service. The exhibit includes examples of the standard chassis arranged as a 12-seated char-abanc, and a 2ocwt. to 3ocwt. covered van, the latter being similar to a number which are on order for Messrs. J. Shoolbred and Co. The chassis should be examined by everybody who visits the Show, particularly the " fool-proof " change-speed gear and the ingenious arrangement by which the two halves of the differential shaft are arranged with their centres out of line. This is an advantage, by reason of the extra strength and double drive given to the differential itself, as will be apparent to all who examine it. The Murray patent governor, which gives the driver only one lever to work in controlling the vehicle, and which acts simultaneously on the air supply, mixture throttle, and point of ignition, is also a special feature, whilst the mechanical lubricator has recently been described at length by us. The interest which Lacre agents take in the company's welfare is exemplified by the piesence at this stand of Mr. Frank Little, who is doing an increasing business in commercial motors at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The recent run of a standard Lacre x-ton van, from Glasgow to London, which we reported last week, deserves to be mentioned again, as proving the sound construction of the system. This van had previously covered many thousands of miles in demonstration trips. Visitors who closely follow electric ignition systems should step across to the Albion touring-car stand (No. 82), in order to examine the latest developments of Mr. Murray's magneto ignition fitted with a revolving inductor.
CLARKSON (93).—We find at this stand no signs that steam is dead. So many people, who know nothing about steam and very little about internal combustion, are ready to consign steam to the limbo of a forgotten age, that it is encouraging for those who advocate its legitimate claims to witness their recognition. Mr. Clarkson himself is not the last to admit the seriousness of the difficulties that have had to be overcome ; but he can find comfort now in the success which has attended his unceasing efforts. The boiler and the burner have presented innumerable knotty problems for solution, and the variety of troubles experienced on the road with oil-fired steam vehicles during the past ten years are simply legion. A few particulars of the improvements introduced by Mr. Clarkson will make clear how vast a stride forward has been made within the last few months. The old troubles entirely centred in the boiler, whirl/ gave rise to an immensity of labour, and were the cause of many lost journeys. The burner either did mot give enough heat, or gave too much, and various types of water and smoke tube boilers did not stand its vagaries of action. Recourse was had to semi-flash boilers, but, although they eliminated the leaky tube nuisance, their small capacity was a serious stumbling block. Without entering into details of the past, we can state what has now been accomplished in the latest Chelmsford cars : the advance, which means the difference between certain success and wearisome doubt, is summed up in three leading points :—(ai The thermostat is reliable ; (b) the feed water control is absolutely automatic, depending upon the steam pressure ; (c) the burner has a second control provided by the steam pressure ; and (d) the generator does not lose its steam contents during stoppages. The secret of the reliable thermostat, and the means by which it is obliged to do its allotted, work, are very simple. The object of a thermostat is to have an unerring method of cutting down the fuel supply when the steam gets to a certain temperature. This is secured by admitting the live steam to a mild steel tube of comparatively large diameter ; the steam passes along this lagged tube to a point near the end remote from its admission passage, and then flows back,
through a smaller, concentric, inner tube of the same metal on its way to the en
gine. The space between the two tubes contains a spirally-wound steel wire,
which, whilst keeping the centres of the two tubes constant, allows the steam to pass. But for this spiral wire the effective expansion or contraction of the tube forming the thermostat would not be only in the line of its longitudinal axis. As it is, calculation of the result of the coefficient coincides with the actual movement of the nose piece which controls the supply of oil vapour to the burner. In the chassis exhibited the nose piece of the thermostat shuts the oil vapour down to give a minimum flame when the steam temperature is 800 degrees Fahrenheit. The feed water is diverted from the generator back to the tank whenever the steam pressure reaches 400lb. on the square inch, as the same steam lifts a loaded piston, which opens a valve and bye-gasses the water along the path of least resistance. The second control of the burner, which also affects the supply of oil vapour, is by a piston which operates a lever on the same rod as that actuated by the nose piece of the thermostat. Movement is given to this piston by a pre-determined pressure of the steam, and it is in no way dependent for its effective action on the thermostat. The water is fed through a coil inside the burner box to the bottom round in the top coil of the generator. It is forced along
the successive rounds, and rises to the top round of the cone. From here it passes to the bottom round of the coil below it. This is repeated, the water, or water and steam, travelling down the boiler but sit each separate, conical, coiled unit. This ensures a lock at the apex of each coil for all the steam in it during any temporary cessation of flow, and Mr. Clarkson calls it a " steam ratchet." It is the feature in the design of the generator which is all. important. After the ninth coil from the top the steam jumps one coil and passes through the third, second and bottom coils. The top eight coils are 4 inch in internal diameter, and the five lower ones, making 13 in all, are .4 inch in internal diameter. The steam passes from the bottom coil through the tubular thermostat described above, and then returns through the coil which it had previously missed. This small reserve of heat is found to be desirable at times. No hand pump is wanted, and steam can be raised to 400lb. pressure in four minutes. Inverted Joy valve gear is fitted. The extra locomotive type brake on the differential shaft is a useful innovation. Thirty-four of these omnibuses are now on order for London, and delivery cannot be given to new customers until about May next, so, clearly, "steam is not dead." DENNIS (94).—On this stand will be seen four exhibits—a 3-ton 4-cylinder lorry fitted with an engine of 24-30h.P.) and built to the order of Win. Hancock and Company, Limited, brewers, of Cardiff; a delivery van, a fifth fepeat order from Peek Frean and Company, Limited, fitted with a 14h.p. engine; a delivery van for Harrods Stores, and a double, deck omnibus built for Thomas Tilling, Limited, of Peckham, fitted with a 24h.p. 4-cylinder engine. All these vehicles have the Dennis worm and pinion drive on the back axle, which gives a reduction of 9 to 1. This system of transmission has been found most successful in practice, and Dennis Brothers, Limited, has fitted it in every type of car and heavy industrial vehicle that is now manufactured at the Guildford works. The bearings at both the front and the back of the worm are fitted with large diameter hall-bearings, to take the thrust, and this, in conjunction with the correctly-designed worm pinion (which is a five-leaved worm with a pitch of about 51 inches), gives a high factor of efficiency. The vehicles on show are of the company's standard make and embody but few new details. The bottom of the gear case can be unbolted and removed, leaving the upper portion in position with the first motion shaft attached to it by its bearings. The second motion shaft and the reverse pinion are fitted permanently into the lower half of the gear case. A universal joint of strong proportions is now fitted between the back of the clutch and the fore-part of the gear box, and this prevents any undue wear on the hearings. The stand also contains an interesting exhibit in a full-size specimen of the worm and pinion wheel, showing the disposition of the various parts. All who follow commercial motoring should halt here.
JAMES AND BROWNE (95).—This company builds three types of chassis, into any of which it can, if required, put any one of the five sizes of engines. This gives a great variety in the complete vehicles, without sacrificing individual standardisation of parts to any extent. The three types of chassis are as follows :—(Al Loads between isewt. and i ton, of which an example is on the stand to the order of Messrs Thorne, whisky distillers, of Greenock and Lon, don ; ,(B) 3oewt. to a tons, of which no -example is staged ; (C) 3 to 5 tons, with
patent reducing gear on the differential shaft, which we illustrate on page 2.4:4, for either goods or omnibus work. The engines manufactured are a two-cylinder with cylinders ain. bore by fin. stroke ; two-cylinder 14h.p., 44in. by fin.; four-cylinder 14-x6h.p., 34in, by' 4iin.; four-cylinder r8-22h.p., 4in. by fin. ; and four-cylinder 25-3oh,p., by fin. It will be noted that the higher powers are multiples of the lower powers, and it may be added that the two biggest engines only are fitted for the heavier loads. The motor ambulance exhibited here has been built to the design of the Metropolitan Asylums Board, and every precaution has been taken to render the panels easily removable for disinfecting and washing purposes. The other vans on this stand are sold to Messrs. J. Shoalbred and Co., and A. W. Gamage, Ltd., facts which in themselves testify to the successful operation of the system in practical daily work. The order for Ga:Liege's is the fourth received by James and Browne, Ltd., from that company. The omnibus chassis is a particularly promising job, although its appearance is detracted from by the unfinished body placed upoe it, and we strongly recommend motor omnibus engineers to examine the system of transmission and to take a note of the exceptionally large surfaces in this machine. The back axle journals are no less than 3in. in diameter by rain, long, dimensions which are typical of the whole structure.
STRAKER STEAM VEHICLE (g6.— Exhibits four examples of motors for heavy work: two five-ton steam lorries ; one with a loco type of boiler, the other having one of the vertical water-tube type. This stand is also used for showing two Bussing vehicles: a three-ton chassis with a 28-3oh.p. engine, with a bore of szonina., and stroke of x3omm., and a three-ton lorry, with a similar engine. A feature on the vehicles of this type is the ease with which the magneto can be detached from its seating: a stirrup strap with a central set-screw is used, and by loosening the latter and pulling over the strap, the whole magneto can be lifted out of position in less than a minute. Side chains, of the roller type, are employed, these having a pitch of t/in. The Standard shock-absorber is fitted : this consists of two rods, attached by their forward ends to the back axle, whilst the rearward extremity is supplied with a strong volute spring. In front of this spring, and forming a bearing for the rod, is a bracket bolted to the extreme end of the chassis, When the vehicle is started up, the pull on the chains tends to compress the spring, and this absorbs and relieves the transmission gearing of shock which would otherwise reach it. The radiator is particularly effective and strong.
MAUDSLAY (154—This company has an interesting Stand, the most prominent object of which is a double-deck bus, built to the order of the Scottish Motor Traction Co., Ltd., of 49, Queen Street, Edinburgh. The whole vehicle is workmanlike, and it has some novel features in its design. The engine fitted to the bus shown has a 3o-4oh.p. engine, and runs at a normal speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The four cylinders arc cast in pairs, and have a bore and stroke of 5 inches. Both inlet and exhaust valves are mechanically operated, and an overhead camshaft is employed for giving them the necessary motion. The camshaft is held in place by four swing bolts, and when these are unscrewed and pulled down both camshaft and casing can be thrown over on one side. This action gives a clear view of the valves and their seatings, which can be easily drawn out when they require grinding. The position of the camshaft allows of large inspection doors in the sides of the crank chamber, and renders it possible for all the crankshaft bearings to he adjusted or the pistons and rods removed bodily in a few minutes. Automatic lubrication of the engine and its bearings is effected by means of a force pump, which passes oil to all the crank pins through the centre of the crankshaft, which is drilled longitudinally for this purpose. Two ignition systems are employed, and these are Simms-Bosch hightension magneto, and accumulators and coil. The latter is only used for starting up the engine. Two levers, for operating the throttle valve and regulating the spark. ing, are placed on the steering wheel. Transmission to the gear-box is by a cone clutch and longitudinal shaft, having universal joints at each end, and thence the final drive to the road wheels is by two side roller chains of 2-inch pitch to the chain sprockets on the driving wheels. These sprockets are bolted to the hubs, and this method of attachment always keeps them true and in line with the sprocket pinions.
The frame is of channel steel, with a section of 4 inches by 2/ inches, transversely stayed where necessary to give ad
clitional strength, and the width of the vehicle over back axle caps is 7 feet 3 inches. There are two brakes. The first has metal-to-metal expanding shoes, which act in drums on the sprocket pinions. The second, which is of the locomotive type, has metal-to-metal doubleacting blocks, operating on drums bolted to the driving wheels. The bus carries 34 persons--x6 inside and 18 on the top. The comfort of the passengers and efficient ventilation have both been carefully considered; whilst the vehicle is stoutly built to stand hard usage, and should give every satisfaction to users. WALLIS AND STLEVENS (z7.— One of the company's patent tractors, with enclosed type of engine, will be found on exhibition. The boiler fitted is of the loco multitubular pattern, with all tivet holes drilled, the rivet being forced into position under a pressure of about 45 tons to the square inch. The back axle is fitted with a spring arrangement, as is also the front axle; this method of suspension makes the tractor very easy when running over indifferent roads. For certain purposes the use of the steam tractor is advantageous. The trailer with patent fore-carriage for backing purposes should also be enquired about.
SEYMOURS (IA —Show a 14-16h.p. two-cylinder Dixi, suitable for delivery vans up to 3ocwt. The cylinders are 120MM. by 130ram. stroke, and a hightension magneto system is fitted. The normal engine speed is i,000 revolutions per minute. Force-feed lubrication is employed, and the chassis has three speeds forward, with direct drive on the top speed, and one reverse; ball bearings are fitted to all the principal shafts in the gear box. A i8-2411.p. four-cylinder Vulpes chassis is also shown, the general design and details of which are identical with the above. More will be known about these machines very shortly.
SCOTT-STIRLING (159).—This company shows one of its 24h.p, double-deck buses to seat 36 passengers. The vehicle is one of a hundred which are being built to the order of the London Power Omnibus Co., Ltd., and the chassis throughout has been designed for the heavy work which it will be called upon to do in an ordinary day's run. The engine has mechanically operated inlet and exhaust valves, and two ignition systems are fitted--low-tension magneto and accumulators and coil. The circulation of the water is on the thermo-syphon principle, and this system obviates the necessity for a water circulating pump and works excellently in practice ; it has proved effective in public service work in London, and this constitutes a severe test. The gear box is provided with three speeds torward, having an approximate ratio of 8, to, and 12 miles per hour, and one reverse. The unladen weight is 3 tons recwt., which is an index to the solidity of build. The omnibus is constructed to comply in all respects with the Local Government Board regulations, and with the regulations of the Metropolitan Licensing Authorities. The chassis and body arc completely British-built throughout, and Mr, John Stirling's great experi• ence in public passenger services has been brought to bear upon all the details. It is satisfactory to hear that further large orders have been entrusted to this company, whose new works at Twickenham should now progress rapidly, and the fact that the output embraces all types of commercial motors, as well as omnibuses, must not be overlooked. Arrangements to give prompt delivery are completed.
There are several exhibits in the Main Hall which include examples of small commercial motors—principally light vans. Visitors who are prepared to devote the necessary time to looking out for these odd vehicles, in addition to that occupied by their inspection of the commercial section proper, will be interested to have a few brief notes to help them. Taking these stray examples in the rotation of the stand numbers, the first to be named is an 8h.p. Singer chassis, with a delivery van body, on the stand of Alford and Alder, where a re-12h.p. Aster chassis ma3r also be examined. The latter is fitted with a small "omnibus" body. Crawshay-Williams, Ltd., of Ashstead, Surrey, shows what the makers term their " B " type delivery van, with 12h.p. engine and metal disc clutch. It is designed to carry a load of r5cwt. This is on stand No. 24The Vulcan Motor Manufacturing and En gineering Co., Ltd., of 31, Hawes-side Street, Southport, exhibits a light delivery van, designed to carry a load of about 5cwt. It is fitted with a loh.p. engine, and should prove useful for newspaper work or shop. delivery purposes. Singer and Co., Ltd., of Coventry, shows two vehicles : one an 8h.p. delivery van ; the other a 12. r4h.p. omnibus. Each engine has two cylinders, and is slung low in the frame horizontally. All parts are exceedingly accessible, and only one chain is employed at a time, although the two side chains do not present this peculiarity of application. The reputation of this company's light motor construction is such as to direct attention to its first commercial vehicles. The Metropolitan Engineering and General Motor Car Co., Ltd., of Commonside East, Mitcham, Surrey, shows a 1211.p. two-cylinder Royal Mail van. This is designed to carry a load of iscwt., and the purpose for which it is intended is of sufficient importance to render it worthy of examination by all who have similar weights to convey.
While on the subject of what may be termed "a reminder," we must point out that practically the whole of the tyre exhibits are in the western gallery. The variety of these exhibits will be gathered from the article on pages 222-224, from which a typical illustration is given above, and we most particularly urge upon every reader of these lines the advantage of his studying the different tyres which are on view separately from any on complete chassis or vehicles. Nobody can ignore the tyre question, because it has been, so far, the chief source of most exasperatingly heavy expense : in consequence, the numerous improvements in quality and methods of fastening must be of vital interest to users. The same remark applies to the Halle spring wheel, specimens of which are shown on stand I8f) (in the corner of the commercial section), as this invention will undoubtedly have many valu• able applications. Other stands to which we feel it necessary to draw attention in a prominent manner are those of Alfred Herbert (120), MeIhuish (121), Selig Sonnenthal (122), White and Poppe (178), Aster (179), Owen (184), and Willans (187).
THAMES ENGINEERING (ids).— Three types of vehicles are being shown, consisting of a 2ocwt. delivery van, an omnibus chassis, and a 4-ton steam lorry. The van has a two-cylinder engine developing r2h.p., and is fitted with hightension ignition by accumulators and coil. The change gear gives three speeds forward and a reverse, operated from one lever. Final transmission is by side roller chains to the sprockets on the driving wheels, which are of the artillery type shod with large solid rubber tyres, ihere are two brakes. The first acts on drums on the driving wheels ; the second is an internal expanding brake on the gear box shaft. The body has a large goods area, and is strong without being in any way clumsy. An average speed of over 12 miles per hour can be maintained if necessary. The omnibus chassis follows the same lines as the delivery van, but is greatly strengthened throughout, and is constructed to take a standard double-deck body with a capacity of 36 passengers. The engine is a four-cylinder 24-3oh,p. one, and is governed. Hightension ignition by accumulators and coil is fitted. The change-speed gear box is situated immediately behind the clutch, and is quite independent of the differential box. Universal joints are placed et both ends of the gear box shaft, so that any springing of the frame under the heavy loads carried will not put undue strain upon the propeller shaft or its bearings. Three speeds and a reverse are provided, and there is a direct drive on the top speed. Differential gearing is of the spur-wheel type, which differs slightly from that usually employed, and is enclosed in a dust and oil-tight aluminium casing. The whole of the gearing is machine-cut, and the bearings are of hard phosphor bronze, whilst all journals on the principal shafts are hardened and ground. The design and the construction of the chassis are up to the usual standard of work turned out by this company. The steam lorry is propelled by a twocylinder compound engine placed longitudinally across the frame. Two changes of speed are provided, and these are operated from a lever at the driver's right hand. The drive is by a cardan shaft and live back axle. A boiler of the locomotive type is placed over the front axle, and has a working pressure of 1751b. per square inch. Powerful brakes are fitted to the back wheel tyres, and also one on the engine shaft.
JESSE ELLIS (162). —One of the most practical and successful of the steam vehicles at present on the market is shown on this standThe exhibit consists of a tipping and watering municipal wagon. Any body can be readily substituted for another, and a steam tipping arrangement is fitted. A boiler of the locomotive type is employed, having about do tubes with a diameter of iiin. The engine is of the compound horizontai type. with cylinders kin. and Sin, in diameter by 6in. stroke, and the normal speed is koo revolutions per minute. Balanced slide valves are employed, and all the bearings are of phosphor-bronze. The crankshaft is ot mild steel, din. in diameter, and carries a fly-wheel outside the engine casing. Between this fly-wheel and the oil-tight casing, the projection of thE crankshaft carries two cut-steel pinions on a square, and these pinions are moved to engage gear wheels on the counter
shaft by a suitable lever. The short countershaft, which is about aft, long, is borne in two brackets ; it carries the helical pinion, and this transmits the power to the differential on the live back axle, which is ain. in diameter. The vehicle is a credit to the makers, whose output bears all evidences of careful manufacture Many improvements in detail are visible, and they unquestionably account for the excellent reports which customers give of their Jesse Ellis wagons. Small wonder that the Maidstone works are increasingly busy at the present time.
HAY MOTOR COMPANY (r63).---This exhibit deserves the attention of users and those interested in heavy steam motor vehicles, by reason of its striking originality. The design of the engine and the transmission gearing is new and embodies some ingenious ideas. The engine has a single cylinder, loin, diameter by rain. stroke, and fitted with a variable cut-off
gear giving great economy when running The engine is slow.running, making about So strokes per minute wnen the vehicle is travelling at five miles per hour. The driving gear consists essentially of two connecting rods, fitted with four clutches and pawls, and two large ratchet wheels fitted on the inner ends of the divided back axle. By the use of this system ol transmission, the necessity for a differential gear is avoided, and, also, there are no dead centres. A modified Ackermann type of steering is employed, with the steering gear arranged in such a manner that the pivot at the end of the axle is in the central vertical plane of the wheel. This makes the steering easy when running over ordinary roads, and also prevents, to a large extent, oscillation of the front wheels when the bearings become worn. The maximum angle of the steering lock is 35deg. The over-all length is 23ft. 61n., whilst the wheel base is rift. 6in. by oft. 3in. The driving wheels are 3ft. ten. in diameter by iii. wide, and their treads are fitted with renewable wooden blocks which prevent slipping when run.sting over greasy setts. The wagon is constructed to carry from six to eight tons, but 12 tons have been put on the platform during a few of the test runs which have been made. The tare weight comes under the 5-ton limit, and the lorry is made to conform with the requirements of the Local Government Board. We are glad to see a new firm entering the field of heavy steam motor vehicle manufacturers, and we withhold any expression of opinion until we have tried the vehicle on the road.
BRITISH AUTO DEPT. (r65).—A completely new and British-built omnibus. The four-cylinder motor is set to run at a constant speed of goo revolutions per minute and develops some 3ob.h.p. The gearing is so arranged that the vehicle shall travel at a maximum of is miles per hour, and there is a surplus of power which enables a good speed to be maintained when climbing hills; this obviates the necessity of constantly changing gear. When running at 12 miles per hour the engine drives the live axle direct, without reduction gear. The second and lowest speeds give 6 and 4.5 miles per hour, respectively, whilst a speed of four miles per hour is obtained on the reverse. The engine design has been carried out to suit heavy service vehicles, the range of speed
being very great, and all the wearing surfaces appear to be of ample size and strength to ensure regular running for long periods without undue wear. The valves are placed vertically above the pistons, being operated from above by tappets and rods from the half-speed shaft; this position is a good one for economy of petrol, and for easy and expeditious removal or adjustment. The bore of each cylinder is sin. and the stroke 6in. There are five, crankshaft bearings, all of which are arranged to be entirely contained in the 'top half of the crank chamber, the bottom half of which can he taken down to allow easy removal of the connecting rods and pistons when necessary.
The change-speed gear is of the sliding or Panhard type, with three speeds forward and one reverse, and all the changes are controlled by one lever on the righthand side of the driver. A very strong and simple differential gear and live axle is employed, the whole of which is enclosed and runs in oil, giving a more efficient and more silent drive than when chains or exposed gears are used. The casing on the back axle is unusually deep.
STRAICF,R AND MACCONNELL (i66) have an interesting stand on which they show three vehicles : a double-deck bus fitted with a 24h.p. two-cylinder engine ; a bus chassis, with a aoh.p. four-cylinder engine ; a light delivery van; and a cab for public or private use. This is the first time that these vehicles have been ',laced upon the English market. The omnibus has cylinders of isomm. bore by iikanin. stroke. Mechanically riperated inlet and exhaust valves are used, and a new automatic carburetter of special construction is employed. There are two systems of ignition : accumulators and coil and high-tension magneto. The gear box has four speeds forward and a reverse, operated by a single lever. Transmission from the engine to the gear box is by a clutch of large diameter ; from thence the drive is by a cardan shaft to a live axle. Final transmission is by pinions meshing with internal gear rings bolted to the two driving wheels. Two brakes are fitted. The first is a band brake working on drum on the back wheels ; the second is an internal expansion brake working against a drum on the gear box shaft. The steering is irreversible, and is by a worm and segment. The length of the chassis is 'Mt. min., with fit. 4in., and height from ground L E GROS AND KNOWLES (567).— The his van, fitted with a 24h.p. Iris engine, is the only business vehicle. The company's omnibus is not likely to be ready for another few months—at least, so far as its being offered to the public goes. The engine is, however, to be seen, and its lines are in every way satisfactory. The body of the van is of large capacity, being 6ft. long, by 4ift. wide, by 5ft. high internally, and is attractively finished with polished mahogany panels on each side ; the two doors at the back lock, and there is a sliding door in the partition behind the driver's seat. This complete vehicle is priced at £66o.
This company has equipped a special department of its Cumberland Park Works, at Willesden, for the production of commercial motors, and we shall give an account of the omnibus shortly.
THOMAS GREEN AND SON This exhibit is interesting as showing one of the many practical uses a motor can be put to at the present time. Three examples of motor lawn-mowers are shown, and a motor roller. The lawn-mowers are excellent machines of their class, and are especially constructed to stand prolonged hard work. The sizes shown are 2410., price £75 ; pin., price Ltos ; and one cutting a width of 42in., price Lis.. The third of these is a most useful machine for any grass or path rolling, and is designed to give a maximum of efficiency with economical working. The machine has a roller 3ft. in diameter by 3ft. 6in. in width, and the price is £175.
EA-‘,TBOURNE MOTOR WORKS ('70). "-The most interesting of the two Panhard vehicles is the hotel omnibus belonging to the Chatsworth Hotel, Eastbourne. This is used for station work, meeting about i7 trains daily. It carries eight passengers, with 3cwt. of luggage. Palmer cord tyres are fitted (870 by roomm.) Reference to the hotel company will bring a good report.
FODEN (172). Nobody can visit this stand and give his adherence to the reports which are sedulously circulated in some quarters to the effect that the steam vehicle is about to be discarded so far as heavy traffic is concerned. Mr. C. Davies is certainly an enthusiastic supporter of steam, whether for heavy loads or other transport, and the number of orders which he can show in hand at the present moment totals to a very respectable figure in excess of too. Traction engine practice is generally followed in this machine, but the class of material employed throughout is unusually good and well finished. The lightening of the system has been secured without any sacrifice ut strength in the important parts, and there is no question that a Foden wagon, for loads of five tons and upwards, will give great satisfaction The intention was to exhibit the fifth machine oraered by Messrs. Bowen and Sons, builders and contractors, of Birmingham, but these customers were absolutely unable to spare it ; hence, the vehicle shown is one supplied to the order of Messrs. S. P. Mumford and Co., the large corn millers of Greenwich. BEAUFORT (1.23).—The exhibit includes a 3ocwt. lorry which has recently been working at Great Yarmouth in the fish trade, carrying ice and fish. The price of this lorry complete with solid rubber tyres is £450. There is also an omnibus chassis which merits examination. Chain drive is employed, of the
roller type, with links in pitch ; there are four speeds and a reverse. The width of the frame over-all is 44211., and the section is klin. by 2i1n. by 5-16in. Internal expansion brakes are fitted inside the sprockets on the driving wheels, and there are also two other powerful brakes. One of these is of the band type, working on a drum with a kin. face on the differential shaft, whilst a third brake is on the intermediate shaft. This company's 3-ton lorry, and its express delivery van, are also types which appear to us likely to give satisfaction to any purchaser.
MOTOR CAR EMPORIUM (s'— The most striking exhibit on this stand is the double-deck omnibus, with a canopy over the top seats, which are down the centre of the roof. This novelty in construction deserves special mention, because the object in view is reduction of side sway. The chassis which carries this body is a 28h.p. four-cylinder De Dion, and all who examine it will observe that practically the whole of the transmission gear is close to the back axle ; this forms a striking contrast to the K.O. type exhibited on the same stand, and which has a four-cylinder 2oh.p. engine. There is also exhibited a 24h.p. Ducommun chassis, fitted with a Bayley body having 34 seats. Other chassis introduced by the Motor Car Emporium will be found elsewhere in the exhibition; for example, on Stand No. 36 in the main hall. This company's delivery vans and chars-ftbanes also deserve commendation, for they continue to give good results in the hands of many users throughout the country. The Mersey Railway Company's service at Birkenhead is one of the most recent to be inaugurated with Motorium vehicles. A very large number of doubledeck omnibuses are in hand for the London General Omnibus Company.
ACCESSORIES AND SUNDRY EXHIBITS.
DOHERTY COMPONENTS (x88).— Components and fittings for motor omnibuses, lorries, and motor vehicles. Horizontal and vertical tube type, combination tanks and radiators ; mechanical pressure, and gravity feed lubricators; bonnets, metal dashboards, fans, petrol tanks; all find a place in the Doherty exhibit.
WILLCOX (xg3).—Several interesting exhibits are to be seen at this stand, which include the Willcox motor oils 7 cylinder, bearing, and gear oils, for ;in--cooled and water-cooled motors. Motor greases in four qualities, with high melting points and excellent lubricating properties. A novelty just introduced by this company is a special centrifugal motor pump, for circulating water in the cylinder jackets. It is manufactured in two sizes : No. r , which runs at from 1,80) to 2,400 revolu• tions per minute ; and No. 2, running at from 1,400 to 2,3nor.p.m. It is supplied with either grooved pulley, friction wheels, or belt pulley, and conaections take fin. and 'lin. copper pipe respectively. The Penberthy patent injectors, for all makes of steam motors and boilers, are automatic, occupy little space, and are very reliable. The patent wire-bound suction lift-hose, for steam motor wagons, conthins no rubber whatever : it is rot-proof and inter-wired externally, and wired internally. Another pattern is used largely for pumping petrol and paraffin. A second exhibit by this company is stand No. 122 in the commercial section ; both stands should be visited.
COVENTRY CHAIN CO. ;sears—This exhibit, though not extensive, is one of much interest to makers of heavy vehicles. It is confined to chains and chain wheels. Chains are shown up to alin. pitch, having a breaking strain of 63,000lb. ; and also these made to the firm's " Special" design. This has only two-thirds of the component parts in any other make of chain of the same size and weight, this result being obtained by making the bushes and side plates front the solid in one integral part, and any stretch other than that due to actual wear and tear is obviated. A chain lubricant bath is also shown, which is of simple design and inexpensive.
BROWN BROS. (202i.•—This exhibit is composed almost 'wholly of E.I.C. goods and " Duco" motor accessories. The E.T.C. display includes all the wellknown coils, accUmulators, plugs and switches. The novelty for this year is the " Solid " accumulator. For this it is claimed that it has so to too per cent. higher efficiency, weight fur weight, than other types. It is not affected by vibration, as it is practically one solid mass. The " Duco" motor accessories include a wide variety of useful articles, such as lamps, funnels, petrol cans, tool bags, densimeters, etc. A new motor tool kit is exhibited, which contains a useful assortment of tools for roadside adjustment and small repairs.
CAMAGE (205)—The novelties shown here are many and varied : they range from cigar lighters to folding washing boots for chauffeurs ; foot warmers, prepared .foods, watch pattern speed•indfcators, and compression gauges are a few of the number of interesting articles. The " Swain Perfect Petrol Pourer and Sieve" is shown. This is fitted with flexible tubing, and allows one to get at the tank, no matter how awkwardly it is placed. The British double-action pump, exhibited on this stand, is designed to inflate pneumatic tyres at great speed and with little exertion. It is composed of two cylinders, one inside the other. The down stroke presses the air into a space between the outer and inner cylinders, and the up-stroke thee forces the air thus compressed into the tyre at at least twice the volume given hy existing in. dators. Coinage shows also " the new tyre stopping, a motor syren, and motor clothing of all kinds. The new Basis.; e-Michel No. ix magneto, and a
large garage petrol funnel, into which an entire can of petrol can be turned, are other items of interest.
BRANIPTON BROS. (2241.—This firm has made a special study of chains suitable for bus and lorry work. Many varieties of driving chains, with breaking strains of from z,soolb. to 89,hoolb., are shown, togethea. with chain wheels, of which a big range of patterns is kept in stock, allowing easy adaptation to various makes of vehicle. The aain. pitch compound roller chain, having a breaking strain of 22 tons, is used on the Straker steam vehicle.
UNITED MOTOR INDUSTRIES (22e).—An item of considerable interest at this stand is Autyskale, a liquid product for preventing deposit in tanks and radiators. This is being introduced to the motor world by the above firm : it has been used with success for a considerable period on several of our leading railways. Among the Castle specialities shown is a dynamo, designed to charge accumulators while the car is running, and so arranged that no higher pressure than four volts can be obtained from the machine. This is secured without the use of a cut-out. A trembler coil, having two windings on each armature, controlled by a switch, can be used with either the lowtension magneto manufactured by this firm, or with an accumulator. Another feature is a horse-power dynamo meter, for ascertaining the power of engines, worked an the air-resistance principle. There are, in addition, new models ef Longuemare carburetters, Stanley silenoers, and alutcl motors, which arc being used exteasively by the Brush and other companies. An ingenious rear lamp, the Tell-tale, cart also be t een. A small lamp on the dashboard is connected up to thermostat placed above the flaine cf tha tail lamp. When the lamp is alight, the heat draws the thermostat away float its connectioa, but in the case of the failure of the lamp, the thermostat, being chilled, falls back on the contact, and thus lights up the lamp on the dashboard. A specially loud and effective foot gong for heavy vehicles also finds a place on this stand.
GENERAL PETROLEUM CO. (242). —Shell motor spirit is shown at this stand. This company supplies several bus companies, including the London General Omnibus Company, the London Road Car Company, the Victoria Association, Thomas Tilling, Ltd., and several provincial companies. The spirit has deservedly earned a great reputation for cleanliness and economy in use.
PRICE'S CANDLE CO. (26o).—The novelties put before the public by this company are Nongealine and Curroleum The ffrst-named is a non-freezing liquid for use in the radiators of motor vehicles. Curroleum is a new oil dressing for clutches of the leather-faced type. It combines the properties of a lubricant and a leather preservative. The well-known Motorine and gear oils manufactured by the -company are shown, and have lost none of their popularity. The uniformity of l'rice's oils is an accepted fact.
FTEDLEV S. HUNT (262).—A patent compound 1 igh•presaure foot pump, automatically compressing the air before forcing it into the tyre, and working continuously on the up-stroke as well as the down-stroke, is shown by this firm, and, in addition, their Beltine for slipping clutches, and a two-gong foot bell.
COVENTRY MOTOR FITTINGS (2b4).—A very effective display of wellfinished lubricators is made on this stand, and in addition to these are a variety of honeycomb aadiaturs, gilled tube radiat( rs, motor bonnets, silencers, tanks, pressure gauges, fns, etc. In thecase of heavy vehicles, where exhaust pressure feed is employed to serve 'he carburetter and work the luhrieators, a nressure-re• ducing valve is advisable. Some wellfinished examples of this fitting are to be seen on this stand. The new patent " Film radiator" is also exhibited for the first time. Exceptional efficiency is claimed for this, and manufacturers of high-powered vehicles will find it to their advantage to inspect the samples shown.